Renal type II sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters NaPi2a and NaPi2c cooperate with other organs to strictly regulate the plasma Pi concentration. A high Pi load induces the phosphaturic hormones parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), enhances urinary Pi excretion and prevents the onset of hyperphosphatemia. How FGF23 is induced from the bones by a high Pi load and the setpoint of the plasma Pi concentration, however, are unclear. Here, we investigated the role of transporter-associated protein (TRAP), found in gene co-expression networks in NaPi2a and NaPi2c function. TRAP is localized in the renal proximal tubules and interacts with NaPi2a. In TRAP-knockout (KO) mice, the serum FGF23 concentration was markedly increased but increased Pi excretion and hypophosphatemia were not observed. In addition, TRAP-KO mice exhibit reduced NaPi2a responsiveness to FGF23 and PTH administration. Furthermore, a dietary Pi load causes marked hyperphosphatemia and abnormal NaPi2a regulation in TRAP-KO mice. Thus, TRAP is thought to be associated with FGF23 induction in bones and the regulation of NaPi2a to prevent an increase in the plasma Pi concentration due to a high Pi load and kidney injury.