Background: Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a rare metabolic disorder with severe hyponatremia and volume depletion usually caused by brain injury like trauma, cerebral lesion, tumor or a cerebral hematoma. The renal function is normal with excretion of very high amounts of sodium in the urine. Diagnosis is made by excluding other reasons for hyponatremia, mainly the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).
Case report: A 60-year-old patient was admitted to the emergency room with pain in the upper abdomen and visual disturbance two weeks after knee replacement. The patient was confused with severe hematoma at the site of the knee endoprosthesis. Laboratory values showed massive thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, anemia, severe hyponatremia and no evidence of infection. CT scan of the abdomen was inconspicuous. Head MRI showed no ischemia or bleeding, but a mild microangiopathy. A myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) was suspected and confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome was identified as the cause of severe hyponatremia most likely provoked by cerebral microcirculatory disturbance. The hematoma at the operation site was interpreted as a result of a secondary von Willebrand syndrome (vWS) due to the myeloproliferative neoplasm with massive thrombocytosis. After starting cytoreductive therapy with hydroxycarbamide, thrombocytosis and blood sodium slowly improved along with normalization of his mental condition.
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of a patient with CSW most likely caused by a microcirculatory disturbance due to a massive thrombocytosis in the context of a myleopoliferative neoplasm.
Key words: Cerebral salt wasting syndrome, hyponatremia, myeloproliferative syndrome