Availability of data and materials
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.
The authors are grateful toward all the supports and would like to thank everyone who contributed in this study, including the parents and infants who provided the samples. We also thank all of the study site staff for cooperation on this project.
This study was funded by the Development of Innovative Research on Cancer Therapeutics from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) (K.Watanabe, 16ck0106243h0001; 19ck0106475h0001), Innovative Areas from MEXT, Japan (K.Watanabe, 16H06449), the Takeda Science Foundation (K.Watanabe), the Institution of Fermentation at Osaka (K.Watanabe), the Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund (K.Watanabe, 16-24825), Kobayashi Foundation for Cancer Research (K.Watanabe), the Yakult Bio-Science Foundation (K.Watanabe) and SECOM Science and Technology Foundation (K.Watanabe).
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
Yuta Tsunematsu, Michio Sato & Kenji Watanabe
Laboratory of Vaccine Materials, Center for Vaccine and Adjuvant Research, and Laboratory of Gut Environmental System, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Ibaraki-city 567-0085, Japan
Koji Hosomi & Jun Kunisawa
Department of Pediatrics, Maternal and Child Health Center, Aiiku Clinic, Tokyo 106-8580, Japan
Department of Human Nutrition, Tokyo Kasei Gakuin University, Tokyo 194-0292, Japan
Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
Haruka Murakami & Motohiko Miyachi
School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan
Department of Tumor Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
Yuji Iwashita & Haruhiko Sugimura
Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
Noriyuki Miyoshi & Keiji Wakabayashi
Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
Department of Molecular-Targeting Cancer Prevention, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
Michihiro Mutoh & Hideki Ishikawa
Y.T., M.S., H.M., Y.Y., N.M., K.Wakabayashi and K.Watanabe conceived and designed the study. J.K., K.H., N.S. and E.S. collected the fecal samples. Y.T. and K.Watanabe designed and performed PCR analysis. Y.I., M.Mutoh, H.I., H.S. and M.Miyachi performed the statistical analysis. All authors analyzed and discussed the results. K.Wakabayashi and K.Watanabe prepared the manuscript.
Correspondence to Kenji Watanabe ([email protected]).
Ethics approval and consent to participate
A written letter of consent was prepared after obtaining informed consent from each of the parent to participate in this study. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of the National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Japan (Approval No. 199-03).
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.