Obtaining the free energy of large molecules from quantum mechanical energy functions is a longstanding challenge. We describe a method that allows us to estimate, at the quantum mechanical level, the harmonic contributions to the thermodynamics of molecular systems of unprecedented size, with modest cost. Using this approach, we compute the vibrational thermodynamics of a series of diamond nanocrystals, and show that the error per atom decreases with system size in the limit of large systems. We further show that we can obtain the vibrational contributions to the binding free energies of prototypical protein-ligand complexes where the exact computation is too expensive to be practical. Our work raises the possibility of routine quantum mechanical estimates of thermodynamic quantities in complex systems.