Carvedilol, a popular anti-hypertensive drug, when orally administered has very poor bioavailability on the account of undergoing hepatic metabolism and therefore it becomes primal to explore an alternative drug delivery route for carvedilol. For a drug to be delivered by undergoing the least number of stages of metabolism and achieve high target specificity, transdermal delivery is the most preferred route. Hence, a study was conducted to test the potential of ethosomes as a candidate for transdermal delivery of carvedilol. A statistical study by using Central Composite Design (CCD) was also conducted for optimizing the quantity of the primary constituents present in the ethosomes. The optimized ethosomal formulation was then incorporated into a hydrogel to prepare the ethosomal gel.
The optimized formulated ethosomal suspension and the ethosomal gel were undergone physicochemical, compatibility and in-vitro drug release studies along with characterization studies. The incorporation of the ethosomes into the hydrogel proved to be effective for skin application thereby ensuring better transdermal delivery. The optimized ethosomal gel has showed credible physical appearance, spreadability, viscosity and in-vitro drug release. The pharmacodynamic studies conducted on Wister rats revealed that the anti-hypertensive action was gradual and sustained lasting up to a period of 24 hours. The stability studies conducted also showed that prepared formulations maintained its consistency within the range for the measured parameters of physical appearance, rheological properties and entrapment efficiency for a period of 3 months.
The incorporation of the drug loaded into hydrogel and its effect on regulating systolic blood pressure in a sustained way lasting 24 hours proved to be better than the present available marketed formulation which has a rapid action with the anti-hypertensive effect lasting only for 10 hours. The chosen route for delivering the drug transdermally hence proved to be effective with better enhancement and permeation capability and shows the high potential of ethosomes to be considered for novel delivery of other anti-hypertensive drugs.