Descriptive Analysis of the Socio-demographic and Worked-related Characteristics
A total of 4906 paediatricians were invited to participate in the study, and valid data were collected from 4198 of the respondents (85.6%). Table 2 provides the descriptive statistics for the individual variables analysed in this study. The age of the respondents varied between 20 and 74 years, and approximately 85% of the respondents were younger than age 50 years of age. Most of the participants were female (70.1%), and the most paediatricians in China are female. In terms of education, most of the respondents had a university degree or above (94.7%), and most held a bachelor’s degree. Most of the participants were married at the time of the study (88.7%).
With respect to practice settings, most of the participants worked in a government general hospital (71%), and smaller percentages worked in a children’s hospital (8.1%) or other settings (1.7%). A considerable proportion of the respondents worked in a secondary (40.5%) or tertiary (55.8%) practice setting. Among the respondents, 29.3% were junior doctors, 30.6% were middle doctors, and 40.0% were senior doctors. More than half of the participants reported working for over 10 years (54.2%). Most of the respondents reported being responsible for 5-15 hospital beds (68.5%) and were most likely to have 1 day of rest each week (42.6%).A monthly salary <10000 yuan was reported by 82.5% of the respondents.
Common method bias analysis of Occupational Identity, Job Satisfaction and TI
We controlled for the effects of an unmeasured latent method factor to verify whether a common method bias existed. The single-factor model had a poor fit, and the four-factor model had a good fit(Table 3). After adding the common method factor to the four-factor model, the fitting index of model was not substantially improved. The RMSEA and SRMR reductions were not more than 0.05 (Table 3), and the CFI and TLI increases were not greater than 0.1 (Table 3), indicating that the fit of the model with the method factor did not result in significant improvement, and that although a common method bias may exist, it had little impact on the study .
The Status Quo of Occupational Identity, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention among Paediatricians
The mean score for OI was 28.52, with scores ranging from 10 to 50 (SD=8.516) (Table 4). The ANOVA revealed that with the exception of marital status, all the socio-demographic and work-related characteristics were significantly associated with OI (Table 4 & Table 5).
In the terms of job satisfaction, the distribution of the paediatricians’ responses to the 20 5-point indicators within the 4 dimensions is shown in Table 4 and Table 5. The mean total score for general job satisfaction was 61.15, with scores ranging from 20 to 100 (SD=12.252) (Table 4). In addition, the mean score for intrinsic job satisfaction was 38.39 (ranged from 12 to 60), while the mean score for extrinsic job satisfaction was 16.34 (ranged from 6 to 30). The results of the ANOVAs revealed that age, gender, region, the grade of practice setting, professional title, years in practice, workload, rest days, and monthly income were significantly associated with general job satisfaction (Table 4 & Table 5).
The mean total score for TI was 11.35, with scores ranging from 4 to 20 (SD=3.289) (Table 4). The research results also showed that there were significant differences among the respondents in terms of TI based on age, education, marital status, region, the type and grade of practice setting, professional title, years in practise, workload, rest days, and monthly income (Table 4 & Table 5).
Pearson Correlation Analysis of Occupational Identity, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
Correlation analysis was conducted on the OI, job satisfaction and TI among Chinese paediatricians (Table 6). The study validated that the level of OI was positively correlated with the respondents’ scores for general job satisfaction as well as intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction (r1=0.702, p<0.01; r2=0.704, p<0.01; r3=0.564, p<0.01, respectively). The study validated that the level of TI was negatively correlated with the respondents’ scores for OI, general job satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction (r1=-0.601, p<0.01; r2=-0.605, p<0.01; r3=-0.563, p<0.01; r4=-0.557, p<0.01, respectively).
Mediating effect analysis of Occupational Identity, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
We used the bootstrap method to analyse the mediating effect, which showed that intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction mediate relationships between OI and TI. The direct effect refers to X→Y path regression, and the indirect effect refers to X/M→Y path regression. The total effect is the sum of the direct effect and the indirect effect, and the relative mediating effect is the proportion of the indirect effect in the total effect. Thus, the total indirect effect was 0.09, and the total effect was 0.223. We also found that OI to EJS was 0.070 and IJS to TI was 0.045. They were far less than OI to IJS(0.621), IJS to EJS (0.359) and EJS to TI(-0.209). So we used a serial mediation model to explain the mediating effect of OI, IJS, EJS and TI. To some extent, the mediating effect of OI to TI through IJS and then EJS were far more than themselves. The mediating effect analysis revealed that OI generates TI through four paths: First, OI directly affects TI(X→Y), and the direct effect was -0.133 (-0.120,-0.145) (Fig.2). Second, OI indirectly affects TI through intrinsic job satisfaction(X→M1→Y). The indirect effect was -0.028 (-0.017,-0.039), and the ratio in the mediating effect was 12.56% (Table 7). Third, OI indirectly affects TI through extrinsic job satisfaction(X→M2→Y). The indirect effect was -0.015 (-0.011,-0.019) and the ratio in the mediating effect was 6.73% (Table 7). Fourth, OI indirectly affects TI through intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction(X→M1→M2→Y). The indirect effect was -0.047 (-0.053, -0.0400), and the ratio in the mediating effect was 21.08% (Table 7).