A new type of weak signal detection system that combines the memristor and Van der pol-Duffing chaotic system has been proposed in this paper, and the dynamic characteristics of the system are studied. It is observed that the system can change from a chaotic state to a periodic state under different driving force amplitudes. Moreover, as compared with several classical chaotic oscillators, the numerical simulation results show that the system has stronger anti-noise performance with the detectable signal-to-noise ratio reaches -163dB, and has a wider detection range. Its detection accuracy is up to 1 × 10 −9 . More importantly, this paper provides the circuit implementation scheme of the system, and the weak signal can be detected with our designed circuit. This may offer a possible way for weak signal detection system with good performance in anti-noise performance, detection range and accuracy.