Strong, ongoing high latitude-warming is causing changes to vegetation composition and plant productivity, modifying plant emissions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs). In the sparsely populated high latitudes, climatic feedbacks resulting from BVOCs as precursors of atmospheric aerosols could be more important than elsewhere on the globe. Here, we quantitatively assess the linkages between vegetation changes, BVOC emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) under different climate scenarios and show that warming-induced vegetation changes determine the spatial patterns of BVOC impacts on SOA. The northward advances of boreal needle-leaved trees and shrubs result in an increase of up to 45% in regional SOA optical depth, causing a cooling feedback. In contrast, areas dominated by temperate broad-leaved trees show a large decline in monoterpene emissions and SOA formation, causing a warming feedback. We highlight the necessity of considering vegetation shifts when assessing radiative feedbacks on climate following the BVOC-SOA pathway.