In the grinding process, the workpiece would not only be cut by abrasive grains, but also have adhesive wear caused by high temperature and heavy load, which makes the surface quality of the workpiece worse. In this paper, a wear test method considering speed, force, wear coefficient, temperature and hardness was proposed. A new wear prediction physical model was established based on finite element method and numerical simulation technology. The wear test was carried out on a grinding machine. The comprehensive research on the relationship between force, temperature, surface morphology and wear volume of grinding process was studied. The relationship between workpiece speed, grinding depth, cooling lubrication conditions and wear volume of grinding process was studied. The results show that the wear model can achieve numerical prediction and trend prediction of grinding temperature, surface profile and wear volume, the relative errors between the theoretical and actual values of wear and grinding temperature are 9.84% and 2.07% respectively. This study provides a support for wear prediction and surface quality control of grinding process from the perspective of temperature and micro material removal form.