The three main approaches in fluid dynamics are actual experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical solutions. Numerical simulations and theoretical solutions are based on the continuity equation and Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) that govern experimental observations of fluid dynamics.Theoretical solutions can offer huge advantages over numerical solutions and experiments in the understanding of fluid flows and design. These advantages are in terms of cost and time consumption. However, theoretical solutions have been limited by the prized NSE problem that seeks a physically consistent solution than what classical potential theory (CPT) offers. Therefore, the current author refined CPT. He introduced refined potential theory (RPT) that provides a viscous potential/stream function as a physically consistent solution to the NSE problem. This function captures observable unsteady flow features including separation, wake, vortex shedding, compressibility, turbulence, and Reynolds-number-dependence. It appropriately combines the properties of a three-dimensional potential function that satisfy the inertia terms of NSE and the features of a stream function that satisfy the continuity equation, the viscous vorticity equation, and the viscous terms of NSE. RPT has been verified and validated against experimental and numerical results of incompressible unsteady sub-critical Reynolds number flows on stationary finite circular cylinder, sphere, and spheroid.