Sympathetic activation during cold exposure increases adipocyte thermogenesis via the expression of mitochondrial protein uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)1. The propensity of adipocytes to express UCP1 is under a critical influence of the adipose microenvironment and varies among various fat depots 2-7. Here we report that cold-induced adipocyte UCP1 expression in a female mouse subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) is regulated by mammary gland ductal epithelial cells in the adipose niche. Single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) show that under cold condition glandular alveolar and hormone-sensing luminal epithelium subtypes express transcripts that encode secretory factors involved in regulating adipocyte UCP1 expression. We term mammary duct secretory factors as “mammokines”. Using whole-tissue immunofluorescence 3D visualization, we reveal previously undescribed sympathetic nerve-ductal points of contact and show that sympathetic nerve-activated mammary ducts limit adipocyte UCP1 expression via cold-induced mammokine production. Both in vivo and ex vivo ablation of mammary ductal epithelium enhances cold-induced scWAT adipocyte thermogenic gene program. The mammary duct network extends throughout most scWATs in female mice, which under cold exposure show markedly less UCP1 expression, fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and subcutaneous fat mass loss compared to male mice. These results show a previously uncharacterized role of sympathetic nerve-activated glandular epithelium in adipocyte thermogenesis. Overall, our findings suggest an evolutionary role of mammary duct luminal cells in defending glandular adiposity during cold exposure, highlight mammary gland epithelium as a highly active metabolic cell type, and implicate a broader role of mammokines in mammary gland physiology and systemic metabolism.