Aims: To investigate the effect of catheter type and injection method on microsphere distributions, specifically vessel targeting accuracy.
Materials and Methods: The study utilized three catheter types (a standard micro-catheter, a Surefire anti-reflux catheter, and an Endobar occlusion balloon catheter) and both manual and computer-controlled injection schemes. A closed-loop, dynamically pressurized surrogate arterial system was assembled to replicate arterial flow for bariatric embolization procedures. Four vessel branches immediately distal to the injection site were targeted for embolization. Embolic microspheres were injected into the model using three catheter types (a standard micro-catheter, a Surefire anti-reflux catheter, and an Endobar occlusion balloon catheter) and both manual and computer-controlled injections.
Results: Across all injection methods, the catheter effect on the proportion of microspheres to target vessels (vs. non-target vessels) was significant (p=0.0051). The catheter effect on the number of non-target vessels embolized was significant (p=0.0590). Across all catheter types, the injection method effect was not statistically significant for either of two outcome measures (percent microspheres to target vessels: p=0.2652, number of non-target vessels embolized: p=0.1476).
Conclusion: Catheter type had a significant effect on targeting accuracy across all injection methods. The Endobar catheter exhibited a higher targeting accuracy in pairwise comparisons with the other two injection catheters across all injection schemes and when considering the Endobar catheter with the manifold injection method vs. each of the catheters with the manual injection method; the differences were significant in 3 of 4 analyses. The injection method effect was not statistically significant across all catheter types and when considering the Endobar catheter/Endobar manifold combination vs. Endobar catheter injections with manual and pressure-replicated methods.