Not all patients with cancer, in particular those with hematogic malignancies, develop functional immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) following COVID-19 vaccines. Durability of vaccine-induced immunity after two doses and the impact of a third dose were evaluated in CAPTURE (NCT03226886), a longitudinal prospective cohort study of vaccine responses in patients with cancer. In evaluating 316 patients, at a median of 111 days following two doses of either BNT16b2 or ChadOX, we observed a time-dependant decline in neutralising antibody titres (NAbT) in a proportion of patients, where NAbTs became undetectable against Delta and Beta in 17% and 15% of patients, respectively. Vaccine-induced T cell responses declined in 44% of patients. Patients with breakthrough infections following two vaccines doses were characterised by absent/low NAbT to Delta prior to infection. Administration of the third vaccine dose boosted NAb responses against VOC in the majority of patients with cancer, especially those with solid cancer. In patients with hematologic malignancies who had undetectable NAbT against Delta after two vaccine doses, 54% did not develop NAb against both Beta and Delta following the third dose. Third vaccine dose boosted T cell responses were boosted in patients with both solid and hematologic malignancies. These results provide critical information on vaccine responses in patients with cancer, especially against VOCs and support widespread access to a third COVID-19 vaccination in this patient group.