MLC1 is a membrane protein highly expressed by brain perivascular astrocytes. Mutations in the MLC1 gene account for megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), an incurable leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, brain edema and cysts, myelin vacuolation and astrocyte swelling, causing cognitive and motor dysfunctions. It has been demonstrated that MLC1 mutations affect the swelling-activated Cl - currents (I Cl,swell ) mediated by volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) and the consequent regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and lead to abnormal activation of intracellular signaling pathways linked to inflammation/osmotic stress. Despite this knowledge, the MLC1 physiological role and MLC molecular pathogenesis are still elusive. Following the observations that Ca 2+ regulates all the MLC1-modulated processes and that intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis is altered in MLC1-defective cells, we applied a multidisciplinary approach including biochemistry, molecular biology, video imaging, electrophysiology and proteomic techniques on cultured astrocytes to uncover new Ca 2+ -dependent signaling pathways controlling MLC1 function. Here, we revealed that MLC1 binds the Ca 2+ effector proteins calmodulin (CaM) and Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and, as result, changes its assembly, localization and functional properties in response to Ca 2+ changes. Noteworthy, CaM binding to the COOH terminal promotes MLC1 trafficking to the plasma membrane, while CaMKII phosphorylation of the NH 2 -terminal potentiates MLC1 activation of I Cl,swell . Overall, these results revealed that MLC1 is a Ca 2+ -regulated protein linking VRAC function and, possibly, volume regulation to Ca 2+ signaling in astrocytes. These findings open new avenues of investigations aimed at clarifying the abnormal molecular pathways underlying MLC and other diseases characterized by astrocyte swelling and brain edema.