The Gaussian noise model has been chosen for underwater information sensing tasks under substantial interference for most of the research at present. However, it often contains a strong impact and does not conform to the Gaussian distribution. In this paper, a practical underwater information sensing system is proposed based on intermittent chaos under the background of Lévy noise. In this system, a novel Lévy noise model is presented to describe the underwater natural environment interference and estimate its parameters, which can better describe the impact characteristics of the underwater environment. Then an underwater environment sensing method of dual-coupled intermittent chaotic Duffing oscillator is improved by using the variable step-size method and scale transformation. The simulation results show that the method can sense weak signals and estimate their frequencies under the background of strong Lévy noise, and the estimation error is as low as 0.03%. Compared with the intermittent chaos of the single Duffing oscillator and the intermittent chaotic Duffing of double coupling, the minimum SNR ratio threshold has been reduced by 11.5dB and 6.9dB, respectively, and the computational cost significantly reduced, and the sensing efficiency is significantly improved.