Apart from having enough food, having access to varied sources of food can help ensure diet quality, so that diets are sufficient not only in calories but also in micronutrients . An imbalance in the amount of calories, protein and/or other nutrients consumed is referred to as malnutrition which commonly encompasses either undernutrition, overnutrition or micronutrient deficiencies. Undernutrition is one form of malnutrition that commonly include being underweight, stunting, and wasting. Now a days, every country in the world suffers from at least one type of malnutrition. It is critical to prevent undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies since they are risk factors for child death, poor development, and early adult mortality . Moreover, overweight or obesity in women is positively associated with several adverse maternal and fetal consequences throughout the period of pregnancy, delivery and the postpartum [4, 5]. Understanding the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) and triple burden of malnutrition (TBM) might be critical to accomplishing the goal of eradicating childhood malnutrition.
The DBM is referred to as the coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition in the same nations, communities, or families . The co-existence of an overweight or obese mother with undernourished child in the same household is an essential issue [7, 8]. There are many countries worldwide facing DBM . The TBM, on the other hand, refers to the co-existence of micronutrient deficiencies, undernutrition and overnutrition [10, 11]. Micronutrient deficiencies include inadequate consumption of vitamins and minerals. In our context, the TBM form can include undernourished child (underweight, stunted or wasted), child micronutrient deficiency (anemia, which is often due to iron deficiency), and maternal overnutrition (overweight or obese for one’s height). It is one of the leading causes of disease worldwide, affecting every country, particularly low- and middle-income countries.
Globally, child undernutrition is widespread and continues to be a major concern. Accordingly, an estimated 22.0%, and 6.7% of children under five worldwide were stunted and wasted respectively . Of which, most children with malnutrition live in Africa and Asia . On the other hand, according to a recent review report in low- and middle income countries, 29.1% of children under the age of five years are stunted, 13.7% underweight, and 6.3% wasted from 2006-2018 . Furthermore, undernutrition is responsible for roughly half of all fatalities among children under five. An estimated 6.3 million live-born children worldwide perished before the age of five due to undernutrition .
Despite the fact that Ethiopia continues to suffer with the burden of malnutrition, problems associated with DBM and/ or TBM are emerging as a public health concerns. When DBM is prevalent, it cannot be addressed only by overnutrition policies . Maternal and child malnutrition in low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) includes both undernutrition and the rapidly developing issues linked with overweight and obesity . Inadequate intake of essential nutrients may weaken immune systems, hinder brain development, and increase the risk of conditions including anemia and blindness . In this context, two billion individuals worldwide are affected by iron deficiency anemia.
Despite the fact that a number of public health interventions have been adopted in Ethiopia to address the various forms of malnutrition, the DBM and TBM yet, represent a new and major setback for Ethiopian nutrition policy. Ethiopia has made progress in eliminating hunger and, to a lesser extent, undernutrition; yet, malnutrition continues to be one of Ethiopia’s primary public health challenges. As a consequence, the government adopted a National Nutrition Program, constructed an infant and young child feeding manual, and established a monthly child growth and monitoring program. However, it remains to be a serious public health issue in Ethiopia. The majority of research on child malnutrition in Ethiopia are descriptive, with just a few being analytical, and depending on pocket area survey data that may be difficult to generalize across varied Ethiopia. Even while there is a nationwide research study on the double burden of malnutrition in Ethiopia , it has limitations. It doesn’t assess the triple burden of malnutrition at all and some forms of double burden of malnutrition among child-mother pairs.
As a result, the purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors of the double burden and triple burden of malnutrition among child-mother pairs in Ethiopia. This work’s evidence will assist policy makers, program designers and implementers in taking appropriate action to achieve sustainable development goal (SDG) 2030, which includes eradicating all forms of malnutrition in Ethiopia by 2030.