Background: Neonatal sepsis is a serious worldwide problem causing significant rates of mortality and morbidity in newborns, especially in cases with delayed infection diagnosis and management. The present study aimed to evaluate the bacteriological profiles, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings in neonatal sepsis in southwest of Iran.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 342 neonates with suspected sepsis admitted to the neonatal ward and NICU were included. Using standard protocols, blood samples were transported to the BACTEC blood culture system. Then, conventional biochemical tests were used for the identification of bacterial genera and species. The bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined usingagardisk diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines. Demographic data, clinical findings, risk factors, mortality rates, and laboratory parameters were collected for each patient.
Results: Forty-three (12.6%) cases were culture-positive, among whichCoNS, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter and Beta hemolytic streptococcus were the most prevalent. The prevalence of early-onset sepsis and late-onset sepsis were 53.5% and 46.5%, respectively. Significant differences between prematurity, very low birth weight, and invasive procedures were observedbetween neonates with and without sepsis. Teicoplanin and vancomycin were the most efficient antibiotics against Gram-positive bacteria, while amikacinwas more efficient against Gram-negative bacteria.
Conclusion: Risk factors such as prematurity, abnormal birth weight, anemia, leukopenia, prolonged hospitalization, and invasive processes and cesarean section, can increase the incidence of neonatal sepsis.