Background: Objectives: To analyze the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with multi-bacillary(MB) leprosy in elimination planning areas in Northwest China.
Design: Retrospective observational study.
Setting: Three specialized hospitals were included.
Participants : The medical records of leprosy in Shaanxi Province from 2004 to 2020 were collected from the leprosy management information system (LEPMIS).
Primary and secondary outcome measures: The basic situation of leprosy treatment and follow-up were investigated.
Results : 305 new cases of leprosy were included in the study. 272 cases (89.18%) were MB leprosy, and 33 (10.82%) were pauci-bacillary (PB) leprosy. Male patients were more likely to have neurological injury ( P <0.001; OR:0.35; 95%CI:0.194-0.630). Patients over 60 years old were more likely to have leprosy deformity ( P <0.001; OR:0.113; 95%CI:0.027-0.478) and nerve injury ( P =0.035; OR:0.333; 95%CI:0.115-0.965). Patients with marriage histories were more likely to have leprosy deformities ( P =0.018; OR:0.842; 95%CI: 0.718-0.987). Patients with passive detection had a lower probability of leprosy reaction ( P =0.011; OR:4.268; 95%CI:1.276-14.272); Patients with nerve damage, positive skin smear test or level I or level II disability were more likely to be classified as MB leprosy.
Conclusions : MB leprosy is related to social and demographic factors (with or without marriage history, age at diagnosis, discovery mode) and clinical factors (such as the number of skin lesions and nerve lesions).