Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) involves the study of nuclei immersed in a static magnetic field and exposed to a second oscillating field. Nuclei have two properties; spin properties and charge properties. Pyrolysis oil is created by dry heating biomass in a reactor without oxygen to around 500 degrees Celsius and then cooling it. Pyrolysis oil is a type of tar that includes too much oxygen to be classified as a pure hydrocarbon. One of the most fundamental methods in synthetic chemistry is using NMR to verify chemical structure. In the literature, little attention has been paid to the application of NMR in the authentication of chemical structures. In this study, we present a use case of NMR to characterize pyrolysis oil and authenticate chemical structures. Results show that the elucidation of chemical compositions of bio-oil is essential for the optimization of its processing technology and exploration of its potential application.