1 Zhou B, Lu Y, Hajifathalian K, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Danaei G, et al. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: A pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. Lancet. 2016;387(10027):1513–30.
2 WHO. Obesity and overweight: Fact sheet [Internet]. WHO Media Cent. 2016
3 Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, et al. Executive summary: Heart disease and stroke statistics-2016 update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;131(4):434–41.
4 Kelishadi R, Heidari-Beni M. Prevention and Control of Childhood Obesity: The Backbone in Prevention of Non Communicable Disease. 2019. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-10616-4_7
5 Climie R, Fuster V, Empana JP. Health Literacy and Primordial Prevention in Childhood - An Opportunity to Reduce the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA Cardiol. 2020 DOI: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2864
6 Speliotes EK, Willer CJ, Berndt SI, Monda KL, Thorleifsson G, Jackson AU, et al. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat Genet. 2010;42(11):937.
7 Omer T. The causes of obesity: an in-depth review. Adv Obesity, Weight Manag Control. 2020;10(4):90–4.
8 Joosen AMCP, Gielen M, Vlietinck R, Westerterp KR. Genetic analysis of physical activity in twins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(6):1253–9.
9 Hayman LL, Worel JN. Healthy lifestyle behaviors the importance of individual and population approaches. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014;29(6):477–8.
10 Swift DL, Johannsen NM, Lavie CJ, Earnest CP, Church TS. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;56(4):441–7.
11 Hankinson AL, Daviglus ML, Bouchard C, Carnethon M, Lewis CE, Schreiner PJ, et al. Maintaining a high physical activity level over 20 years and weight gain. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2010;304(23):2603–10.
12 Moholdt T, Wisløff U, Lydersen S, Nauman J. Current physical activity guidelines for health are insufficient to mitigate long-term weight gain: More data in the fitness versus fatness debate (The HUNT study, Norway). Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:1489–96.
13 Hamer M, Brunner EJ, Bell J, Batty GD, Shipley M, Akbaraly T, et al. Physical activity patterns over 10 years in relation to body mass index and waist circumference: The whitehall II cohort study. Obesity. 2013;21(12):755–61.
14 AM M, HB B-M, Boshuizen H, AMW S, PH P, WMM V. Effect of change in physical activity on body fatness over a 10-y period in the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(3):491–9.
15 Dugas LR, Kliethermes S, Plange-Rhule J, Tong L, Bovet P, Forrester TE, et al. Accelerometer-measured physical activity is not associated with two-year weight change in African-origin adults from five diverse populations. PeerJ. 2017;5:e2902.
16 Barone Gibbs B, Pettee Gabriel K, Carnethon MR, Gary-Webb T, Jakicic JM, Rana JS, et al. Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Adiposity: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations in CARDIA. Am J Prev Med. 2017;53(6):764–71.
17 Ekelund U, Kolle E, Steene-Johannessen J, Dalene KE, Nilsen AKO, Anderssen SA, et al. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity and associations with body weight gain: Does body weight determine a decline in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity? Int J Obes. 2017;41(12):1769–74.
18 Ekelund U, Besson H, Luan J, May AM, Sharp SJ, Brage S, et al. Physical activity and gain in abdominal adiposity and body weight: Prospective cohort study in 288,498 men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:826–35.
19 Lee IM, Djoussé L, Sesso HD, Wang L, Buring JE. Physical activity and weight gain prevention. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2010 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2010.312
20 World Health Organization. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. 2010.
21 Van Dyck D, Cerin E, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Hinckson E, Reis RS, Davey R, et al. International study of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with body mass index and obesity: IPEN adult study. Int J Obes. 2015;39(2):199.
22 Wenger HA, Bell GJ. The Interactions of Intensity, Frequency and Duration of Exercise Training in Altering Cardiorespiratory Fitness. Sport Med. 1986;3(5):346–56.
23 Felsing NE, Brasel JA, Cooper DM. Effect of low and high intensity exercise on circulating growth hormone in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;71(1):157–62.
24 Byambasukh O, Zelle D, Corpeleijn E. Physical Activity, Fatty Liver, and Glucose Metabolism Over the Life Course. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019;114(6):907–15.
25 Jeffery RW, French SA, Forster JL, Spry VM. Socioeconomic status differences in health behaviors related to obesity: The healthy worker project. Int J Obes. 1991;15:689–96.
26 Gutiérrez-Fisac JL, Guallar-Castillón P, Díez-Gañán L, López García E, Banegas Banegas JR, Rodríguez Artalejo F. Work-related physical activity is not associated with body mass index and obesity. Obes Res. 2002;10(4):270–6.
27 Byambasukh O, Osté MCJ, Gomes-Neto AW, van den Berg E, Navis G, Bakker SJL, et al. Physical Activity and the Development of Post-Transplant Diabetes Mellitus, and Cardiovascular- and All-Cause Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients. J Clin Med. 2020;9(2):415.
28 Stolk RP, Rosmalen JGM, Postma DS, De Boer RA, Navis G, Slaets JPJ, et al. Universal risk factors for multifactorial diseases: LifeLines: A three-generation population-based study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2008;23(1):67–74.
29 Wendel-Vos GCW, Schuit AJ, Saris WHM, Kromhout D. Reproducibility and relative validity of the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003;56(12):1163–9.
30 Byambasukh O, Snieder H, Corpeleijn E. The relation between leisure time, commuting and occupational physical activity with blood pressure in 125,402 adults: The Lifelines cohort. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8:e0814313.
31 Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR, Tudor-Locke C, et al. 2011 compendium of physical activities: A second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(8):1575–81.
32 Weggemans RM, Backx FJG, Borghouts L, Chinapaw M, Hopman MTE, Koster A, et al. The 2017 Dutch Physical Activity Guidelines. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018;15(1):58.
33 Vinke PC, Corpeleijn E, Dekker LH, Jacobs DR, Navis G, Kromhout D. Development of the food-based Lifelines Diet Score (LLDS) and its application in 129,369 Lifelines participants. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;72(8):1111–9.
34 Oterdoom LH, Gansevoort RT, Schouten JP, de Jong PE, Gans ROB, Bakker SJL. Urinary creatinine excretion, an indirect measure of muscle mass, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population. Atherosclerosis. 2009;207(2):534–40.
35 Williamson DF, Madans J, Anda RF, Kleinman JC, Kahn HS, Byers T. Recreational physical activity and ten-year weight change in a US national cohort. IntJObesRelat Metab Disord. 1993;17:279–86.
36 Pavey TG, Peeters GMEE (Geeske., Gomersall SR, Brown WJ. Long-term Effects of Physical Activity Level on Changes in Healthy Body Mass Index Over 12 Years in Young Adult Women. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91(6):735–44.
37 Yumuk V, Tsigos C, Fried M, Schindler K, Busetto L, Micic D, et al. European Guidelines for Obesity Management in Adults. Obes Facts. 2015;8(6):402–24.
38 Williams PT. Greater weight loss from running than walking during a 6.2-yr prospective follow-up. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(4):706.
39 Swain DP, Franklin BA. Comparison of cardioprotective benefits of vigorous versus moderate intensity aerobic exercise. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(1):141–7.
40 Orri J, Hughes E, Mistry D, Scala A. Is Vigorous Exercise Training Superior to Moderate for CVD Risk after Menopause? Sport Med Int Open. 2017;1(5):E166.
41 Hidalgo-Santamaria M, Fernandez-Montero A, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Moreno-Galarraga L, Sanchez-Villegas A, Barrio-Lopez MT, et al. Exercise Intensity and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: The SUN Project. Am J Prev Med. 2017;52(4):e95–101.
42 Ainsworth BE, Leon AS, Richardson MT, Jacobs DR, Paffenbarger RS. Accuracy of the college alumnus physical activity questionnaire. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993;46:1403–11.
43 French SA, Jeffery RW, Forster JL, McGovern PG, Kelder SH, Baxter JE. Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults - The Healthy Worker Project. Int J Obes. 1994;18:145–54.
44 Ball K, Owen N, Salmon J, Bauman A, Gore CJ. Associations of physical activity with body weight and fat in men and women. Int J Obes. 2001;25(6):914–9.
45 Steeves JA, Bassett DR, Thompson DL, Fitzhugh EC. Relationships of occupational and non-occupational physical activity to abdominal obesity. Int J Obes. 2012;36(1):100–6.
46 King GA, Fitzhugh EC, Bassett DR, McLaughlin JE, Strath SJ, Swartz AM, et al. Relationship of leisure-time physical activity and occupational activity to the prevalence of obesity. Int J Obes. 2001 DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801583
47 Monda KL, Adair LS, Zhai F, Popkin BM. Longitudinal relationships between occupational and domestic physical activity patterns and body weight in China. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(11):1318–25.
48 Bell AC, Ge K, Popkin BM. Weight gain and its predictors in Chinese adults. Int J Obes. 2001;25(7):1079–86.
49 Xu CX, Zhu HH, Fang L, Hu RY, Wang H, Liang M Bin, et al. Gender disparity in the associations of overweight/obesity with occupational activity, transport to/from work, leisure-time physical activity, and leisure-time spent sitting in working adults: A cross-sectional study. J Epidemiol. 2017;27:401–7.
50 Ueda SY, Yoshikawa T, Katsura Y, Usui T, Nakao H, Fujimoto S. Changes in gut hormone levels and negative energy balance during aerobic exercise in obese young males. J Endocrinol. 2009;201(1):151.
51 Park MH, Sovio U, Viner RM, Hardy RJ, Kinra S. Overweight in Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood and Cardiovascular Risk in Later Life: Pooled Analysis of Three British Birth Cohorts. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):1–6.
52 Staiano AE, Martin CK, Champagne CM, Rood JC, Katzmarzyk PT. Sedentary time, physical activity, and adiposity in a longitudinal cohort of nonobese young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;108:946–52.
53 Proctor DN, O’Brien PC, Atkinson EJ, Nair KS. Comparison of techniques to estimate total body skeletal muscle mass in people of different age groups. Am J Physiol - Endocrinol Metab. 1999;277:E489–95.
54 Summerbell, CD ; Douthwaite, W; Whittaker, V; Ells, LJ; Hillier, F; Smith, S; Kelly, S; Edmunds, LD; Macdonald I. The association between diet and physical activity and subsequent excess weight gain and obesity assessment at 5 years age or older: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. Int J Obes. 2009;92:491–9.
55 Golubic R, Wijndaele K, Sharp SJ, Simmons RK, Griffin SJ, Wareham NJ, et al. Physical activity, sedentary time and gain in overall and central body fat: 7-year follow-up of the ProActive trial cohort. Int J Obes. 2015;39:142–8.