Epigenetic alterations explained by the “loss of heterochromatin” model have been proposed as a universal mechanism of aging, but the region-specific changes of heterochromatin during aging are unclear. Here, we examine age-dependent transcriptomic profiling of mouse retinal neurons to identify epigenetic regulators involved in heterochromatin loss. RNA sequencing analysis revealed gradual down-regulation of Kdm3b during retinal aging. Disruption of Kdm3b (Kdm3b+/-) in 12-month-old mouse retina decreased the number of cone photoreceptors and changed the morphology of cone ribbon synapses. Integration of transcriptome profiling with epigenomic analysis demonstrated gain of heterochromatin feature in synapse assembly and vesicle transport genes via the accumulation of H3K9 mono- and di-methylation. However, the loss of heterochromatin in apoptotic genes exacerbated retinal neurodegeneration. We propose that this KDM3B-centered epigenomic network is crucial for maintaining cone photoreceptor homeostasis via the modulation of gene-set specific heterochromatin features during aging.