1. Growth Performance
Our Growth Performance results are in agreement with results obtained by (Samani et al., 2020; Barad et al., 2016; Kirubakaran et al., 2016; Sunbul et al., 2010). Authors confirmed the improvement of live body weight, feed intake and decrease the FCR of broiler chicken by supplementation of coriander seeds, fenugreek, and green anise. Moreover, the biological effects depend on the doses and the ratios between the different natural products used (Alleman et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2003). Phytogenic feed additives improve feed palatability. Herbs, spices, and their active compounds have positive outcome as food condiments through the oronasal system. Oronasal sensing induces the gastrointestinal tract to receive food and stimulates digestive secretions (Brenes and Roura, 2010). Also, in vitro analysis confirmed the increasing of activities of pancreatic lipase and amylase when the diet is mixed with various spices and spice extracts. According to Lillehoj et al. (2018), there is a significant relationship between specific bacterial populations and some phytochemicals in the gut of domestic animals which induces to a better productivity. Natural compounds are able to modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota and increase animal welfare and production. Gut is a very important organ, because it has both functions of digestion and host immunity (Sugiharto, 2016). According to Abd El-Hack (2021), and Qureshi (2020), dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have beneficial effects on intestinal morphology. Histological examination showed improvement of jejunal villus height, ratio between villus height and crypt depth, and less infiltration of mononuclear cell, which helps to improve the absorptive surface for better nutrient utilization. On the other hand, Khubeiz and Shirif (2020), Barreto et al. (2008), have reported the insignificant effects of phytogenic seed as feed additive powder in the diet at different levels on bird performance. Lee et al. (2003) explained this effect by the high nutrition quality of the basal diet and the environmental conditions ; diets containing highly digestible ingredients limit the proliferation of bacteria in the intestinal tract as there is no substrate to support bacterial growth.
In our study, the improvement of the growth performance with the phytogenic feed additive composed by coriander and green anise can be due to the enhancing of palatability and digestive enzymes, which are affected by the level of linalool (Brenes and Roura, 2010). Therefore, the antibacterial characterization of the spices against the development of damaging microflora, which they act as phytogenic growth promoters (Pathak et al., 2011).
2. Carcass Trait
Results about the effect of phytobiotics on carcass and internal organ performance are in agreement with the results of several researchers, who have reported that natural products improve feed intake and live weight of birds, which affects carcass yield, liver, heart, and gut (Alçiçek et al., 2003; Giannenas et al., 2003). In the review research of Silva et al. (2020), they reported that the coriander seeds in chicken's diet improve weight gain and carcass yield. Similarly, authors showed that supplementation with coriander seeds or coriander essential oil could improve broiler intestinal health and provide an important contribution to the health status of the animals. Al-Homidan et al. (2020), Awadein et al. (2010), have noted that incorporation of fenugreek in the diet has no negative effect on performance, carcass and internal organ weights of chicken. In fact, herbs and spices bioactive compounds have beneficial effects on animal welfare and enhance meat nutritional quality. Several strategies have been adopted to enrich animal products, especially the fatty acid profile of meat by introducing plants into their diet by enriching them with Omega3 (Mourot, 2009). Phytobiotics promote digestion which can influence weight gain, because it involved regulation and modulation of the metabolic and immune system (Gadde et al., 2017). Actually, much research focused on meat quality and the oxidation process. Lipid and protein oxidation is recognized as a major threat to the quality of poultry products. The implication of phytochemicals in the feed or directly in the meat product is a significant solution (Akram et al., 2020).
In our study the significant improvement of carcass parameters could be explained by the stimulatory effects of digestive enzymes secretions, which induce to better absorption of nutrients, such as amino acids, from the digestive tract (Rahimi et al., 2011). Furthermore, the antioxidants compound and phenolic substance in vegetables products improved the carcass breast of broiler by 1.2% (Abo Omar et al., 2016).
3. Hematobiochemical Parameters
Our hematobiochemical parameters results are in agreement with those obtained by Saeid and Al Nasry (2010), who noted tha the Glycemia level varied between (1,09g/l -2,13g/l) with different incorporating levels of coriander seeds in broiler’s feed. Chettouh and Riabi (2019), Adil (2015), Mamoun et al. 2014 and Safaei et al. (2013), reported that incorporation of fenugreek seeds reduced blood cholesterol and Glycemia levels in broilers. Our result about the reduction in serum cholesterol may be due to the presence of saponins and resins in fenugreek, which inhibits the absorption of bile acids and cholesterol in the gut, leading to a reduction in blood cholesterol levels (Petit et al, 1995). Brenes and Roura (2010) have reported improving pancreatic digestive enzymes with incorporation of phytogenic compounds in poultry feed. According to Oueslati and Ghédira (2015) numerous pharmacological and clinical studies have shown that fenugreek has antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, and hypoglycemic effects due to the effects of the constituents of the seed including steroids (diosgenin), alkaloids (trigonelline), flavonoids (luteolin), coumarins, amino acids (hydroxy isoleucine), mucilages (galactomannan), volatile constituents, fixed oil, and various other substances. The determination of these molecules is used to assess physiologic functions, immune system and to monitor metabolic and nutritional diseases (Lee et al., 2010). Our results agree with those reported by Mamoun et al. (2014), and Saeid and Al Nasry (2010), who noted that the level of uricemia decreased with the incorporation of fenugreek and coriander. Al-Shammari et al. (2017) showed that the addition of anise seed powder in the drinking water of Hubbard Classic broilers improves significantly the blood profile; anise seed can be considered as an effective physiological promoter in broilers. Adil et al. (2015) have mentioned a significant improvement in red blood cell volume and Hemoglobulin concentration with adding 10 g/kg of fenugreek in broiler’s diet (p < 0.05). However, others noted, unlike by the incorporation of fenugreek the serum metabolites and immune responses of laying hens were not impacted (Samani et al., 2020). Saeid and Al Nasry (2010) confirmed that coriander seeds improve the hematological composition of red blood cells, hemoglobin, and plakets, while he found no difference in white blood cells in broiler chickens.