Objective The objective of this study is to develop and identify polymorphic microsatellite markers for fungus-gardening (attine) ants in the genus Trachymyrmex sensu lato . These ants are important ecosystem engineers and have been a model group for understanding complex symbiotic systems, but very little is understood about the intraspecific genetic patterns across most North American attine species. These microsatellite markers will help to better study intraspecific population genetic structure, gene flow, mating habits, and phylogeographic patterns in these species and potentially other congeners. Results Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified 17 and 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers from T. septentrionalis and Mycetomoellerius (formerly Trachymyrmex ) turrifex , respectively, and assessed the genetic diversity of each marker. We also analyzed the cross-amplification success of the T. septentrionalis markers in two other closely related Trachymyrmex species, and identified 10 and 12 polymorphic markers for T. arizonensis and T. pomonae , respectively.