Melt-quenching method was used to synthesize a series of zinc tellurite glasses doped with erbium oxide and silver oxide. At room temperature, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and density measurement were implemented to characterize the prepared glass samples. The amorphous nature of the glass samples is proven from the XRD spectra obtained in this work. The density of the glass showed an increment trend from 4.4673 to 4.9705 g/cm3 when adding more silver oxide, which can prove that the glass strength is higher. For photoluminescence analysis, blue, green and red emissions were found in the glass series under 375 nm excitation wavelength. According to McCumber theory, higher emission cross-section and higher FWHM are efficient for both broadband amplifier and laser application. More extensive and flatter gain with a maximum gain difference has covered both C and L bands for optical communication, providing a few channels in the wavelength division multiplex network (WDM). The high efficiency of optical amplification is justified with a higher gain figure of merit and larger gain bandwidth. According to McCumber’s theory, all the results proved that 0.03 molar fraction of silver oxide is the most optimum concentration to be applied in the optical application. In Judd-Ofelt analysis, spectroscopic quality factor and shorter lifetime is a crucial parameter for obtaining intense laser transition, strong emission probabilities and encouraging the laser optical transition, which was successfully attained in all glass samples. The present glass system is also applicable for white light application since the standard equal energy point from all glass samples were located near the center of the CIE diagram (0.33, 0.33). In the meantime, higher values of CCT range from 6761 to 6937 K produce light with a better image as compared to lower CCT. Higher CCT is commercially used in LCD (liquid crystal display) and CRT (cathode ray tube) screens. The colour purity is a parameter for better white LED application, whereas low colour purity is for pure white light emission. Therefore, lower colour purity was found around 10.7 around 18.8% in all glass samples.