Olive oil contains active substances such as oleic acid, phenolic components, and squalene. Principal phenole components, Extravirgin olive oil's bitterness and pungent flavor come from hydroxytyrosol as well as oleuropein (1). Researchers discovered antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities, as well as hepatoprotection, neuroprotection, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, and cardiovascular protection. Antiproliferative activities in cell lines, anticancer effects in animals, and antibacterial and antiviral properties have all been reported (2). Oleuropein increases the functional activity of immunocompetent macrophages by triggering the inducible shape for enzyme (nitric oxide synthase), which enhances production of 'nitric oxide' (NO) in macrophage challenge in addition to lipopolysaccharides. Oleuropein has long been recognized to reduce lypoxygenase activity and leukotriene production, making it an anti-inflammatory (3).
Oleuropein inhibits the growth of G- and G+ bacteria, and mycoplasma. Oleuropein-like structure of phenol appear for have antibacterial properties via damaging bacterial membranes and/or changing peptidoglycans in cells (4). In vitro, oleuropein showed activities against fungus with a minimum inhibiting concentrations (MIC) for 12.5 mg/mL. Following labeling with fluorescent DNA-binding dyes, morphological changes inside nucleus for investigated treatment of experimental tests with subinhibiting concentration for oleuropein revealed which apoptosis is the major cause for cells dead (5). Oleuropein is discovered for inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, as well as Pseudomonas solanecearum (6). It also inhibits Bacillus megaterium (7) germination and sporulation, as well as the expansion of sprouting Bacillus cereus spores (8).
Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma fermentas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pirum were all investigated in vitro. Oleuropein suppressed mycoplasmas at dosages ranging from 20 to 320 mg/L (9). Invitro experiments were used for investigate the effectiveness for the phenolic compounds upon Candida albicans, Considering the wide frequency of opportunistic fungal diseases as well as its potential potency, chemical products have considerable antimicrobial effects and might be a potential source of new anti-candidal medicines (10). Although Candida albicans is the most prevalent Candida species to cause invasive. throughout latest years, fungal pathogens effects of non-organisms are now more common (11). A rise in serious human infections caused by fungus in immunocompromised people, as well as a tendency for medication resistance to conventional treatments, necessitated the development of more effective therapy (12). The oil extract of sage was the most effective in inhibiting the studied microorganism, whose effect exceeded the use of chemical gargling lotion Chlorhexidine gluconate and alcoholic extract, which showed a lower rate of inhibition, while the aqueous extract did not show any inhibition of bacterial growth. (13).
Controlling these fungi, which cause pre-and post-harvest diseases in agricultural goods, as well as the detrimental environmental consequences of pesticides used to battle the problem, is a problem that has yet to be solved. The current focus is on creating new microbial control strategies and feasible alternatives, as well as minimizing the overuse of synthetic fungicides, which have a negative impact on the environment as well as human and animal health (14, 15, 16).
Candida albicans is a parasitic microbe in the environment which live on healthy people's mucosal surfaces and can cause opportunistic infections if the host is vulnerable. Candida albicans has to be a wide common Candida organism that causes advanced pathogens, but infections caused by non-albican species have become more widespread in recent years (17). A spike in serious human infections caused by fungus in immunocompromised people, as well as a tendency for medication resistance to conventional therapies, triggered that requirement for further successful treatment. Numerous studies have shown that olive leaf extract and its constituents, primarily oleuropein with hydroxytyrosol, have health benefits, including antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The genus, species, strain, and isolation source, as well as the active components in the leaf extracts, may influence antifungal resistance (18, 19, 20, 21). This study looked at on the potential effective for oleuropein, a complex phenol found in high concentrations in olive tree derivatives, on an opportunist fungus Candida albicans.