Background: The frequency of alpha thalassemia trait is about 40% in the Kuwaiti population, but there has been no comprehensive study of the prevalent alleles. This is a report of the patients who were referred for molecular diagnosis over a 20-year period. Methods: Blood samples from suspected cases were sent to the Hemoglobin Research Laboratory of the Department of Pediatrics, Kuwait University. A retrospective study of the molecular characterization of samples from 1994 to 2015 was carried out. The alpha globin genotypes were determined by a combination of PCR, allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization and reverse dot-blot hybridization (Vienna Lab Strip Assay). Results: 400 samples were characterized and analyzed from individuals aged <1 month to 80 years, with a median of 6 years (~60% children and adolescents). Most (90.8%) were Kuwaiti nationals. The common genotype was homozygosity for the polyadenylation-1 mutation (αPA-1α/α PA-1α) in 33.3%, followed by heterozygosity (αα/α PA-1α) for the same mutation in 32.3%. The PA-1 was therefore the most frequent allele (0.733). The frequency of the α0, –MED was 0.19. Rare alleles that were found in very low frequencies included the α0 (--FIL) in a Filipino child, Hb Constant Spring, Hb Adana,and Hb Icaria. Conclusion: There is a wide variety of alpha thalassemia alleles among Kuwaitis, but the nondeletional PA-1 is by far the most common cause of moderate to severe HbH disease phenotype. The α0 (–MED) allele is also encountered, which has implications for pre-marital counselling especially the possibility of having babies with alpha thalassemia major (Barts hydrops fetalis).