With China’s economy growing, China's medical system is gradually improving, but there still exists severe issues. Based on the data from National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, the number of physicians per 1000 people in China in 2013 was 1.9, which was lower than that of the United States–2.5, 3.9 in Germany, and 4.3 in Russia. The problems of Chinese physicians are pressing, which causes a gap among China and high-income countries. Physicians’ work nature and characteristics are special because it involves human life and health. Chinese physicians are handed over multiple tasks such as routine diagnosis, clinical teaching, and scientific research. At the same time, the practicing environment of Chinese physicians is not ideal. Frequent occurrence of medical injury cases influence doctors’ work attitude at multiple levels, resulting in a decline in the doctor's work motivation and attitude. These reasons will lower doctor's devotion to work, then their efficiency, which in turn affect the overall job performance. The decrease of physicians’ performance will injure patients’ treatment execution, patients’ satisfaction and so on. Job performance refers to the performance of all employees' attitude, behaviors and tasks completion level, which can be divided into individual performance and organizational performance. Individual performance refers to the evaluation from superiors and peers. Organizational performance is in terms of quantity, quality and efficiency of assigned tasks. Generally speaking, organizational performance will also improve accordingly with the improvement of individual performance. Therefore, physicians’ job performance has undoubtedly become the focus of hospital administrators and scholars’ researches.
Achievement motivation has become one of the important organizational behaviors that affect job performance. The psychologists, Yerkes and Dodson, found that within a certain range, the work efficiency will be enhanced as the motivation intensity increases . At the same time, according to Mcclelland's achievement needs theory, people with high achievement motivation tend to be more devoted to work and achieve higher performance for enjoying adventurous work environment through positive feedback. Miller put forward that the innovative employees with high job performance are more eager to be motivated in the workplace. Tyagi's research showed that intrinsic motivation positively influenced the job performance of the salesmen. We found that physicians and salesmen share similarities in the aspects of work intensity and work nature. By the inference, the following hypothesis are issued:
H1: There is a positive correlation between physicians' achievement motivation and job performance.
Although some researches have proven that achievement motivation has a positive effect on job performance, the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are still unknown. Is there any other intermediate variable that plays a crucial role?
In the past few decades, organizational commitment has been the focus of enterprises. Organizational commitment can be defined as the relative strength of individuals' recognition and participation in a particular organization. A large amount of researches of Allen & Meyer discovered that the employees with high organizational commitment had a strong sense of identity and belonging to their organizations. They were proud of being a member of the organizations, and were willing to make sacrifices for the group benefits. At the same time, the theory of social exchange also holds that employees with highly organizational commitment have a great sense of participation and dedication, which will lead to better performance. A meta-analysis of Riketta confirms that there is a strong positive link between emotional commitment and job performance. Meanwhile, Jaramillo also proved this strong link in a meta-analysis to salesmen. Because of the unique nature of their job, physicians will devote more time and energy to their work, so they are more likely to have emotional attachment to the hospital.
In addition, Miller believes that employees with high achievement motivation will be more connected with the organization. In their meta-analysis, Mathieu and Zajac also provided evidence to support that achievement motivation, as a motivating factor, is significantly associated with organizational commitment. Adeyemo investigated the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment, and came to the conclusion that motivation has a significant impact on the degree of personal commitment to work. Achievement motivation can be seen as the predecessor of organizational commitment, which in turn can be seen as an antecedent variable for key work outcomes. In a study of bank employees, Panagiotis confirmed that the organizational commitment mediated the effects of achievement motivation on job performance. Based on this reference, the following assumptions are made:
H2: The doctor's organizational commitment mediates the effect of achievement motivation on job performance.
Personality is the internal tendency of individual behaviors. It is manifested in the integration of individual needs, motivation, attitude, personality, and performance when the people adapts to environments. With the adaptation to society, a stable personality will be formed. Personality psychology believes that people with different personalities will show different needs, attitudes, characters, and performances when adapting to organizations and society, which would impact their learning, life, and work. In the literature review on organizational behavior, we found that personality played the role of moderator in the effect of antecedent variables of job performance. For example, in a study of 451 insurance sales employees, Uppal, Nishant found that openness and conscientiousness played a positive moderating role in prior related work experience and current job performance, while neuroticism caused a negative moderation effect. In a study of 167 Malaysian service providers, AK Othman found that regulation of emotion interacted with neuroticism, thus affecting peer evaluation of job performance. Zhou also found personality will moderate coping styles to influence the Chinese physicians anxiety symptoms. We wonder that whether personality plays the same role in this study. Does personality also moderate the mediating effect of organizational commitment on job performance? Therefore, this study uses personality as the moderator and proposes the third hypothesis:
H3: Personality moderate the mediating effect of organizational commitment on job performance.