Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the primary host used for manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. However, production instability of high-titer cell lines is a major problem and is associated with genome instability, as chromosomal aberrations reduce transgene copy number and decrease protein titer. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing data from 11 CHO cell lines and found deleterious single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes. Comparison with other mammalian cells confirmed DNA repair is compromised in CHO. Restoration of key DNA repair genes by SNP reversal or expression of intact cDNAs improved DNA repair and genome stability. Moreover, the restoration of LIG4 and XRCC6 in a CHO cell line expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase mitigated transgene copy loss and improved protein titer retention. These results show for the first time that correction of key DNA repair genes yields considerable improvements in stability and protein expression in CHO, and provide new opportunities for cell line development and a more efficient and sustainable production of therapeutic proteins.