Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid. is a wild fruit tree with high medicinal, edible, ecological, and ornamental values. This paper investigates the phenotypic diversity of nine traits in fruit and leaf from 17 Docynia delavayi natural populations. The results of coefficient of variation showed petiole length and leaf area contributed the highest mean coefficient of variation (CV = 36.85% and 43.71%, respectively), while fruit vertical diameter had the lowest contribution index (CV=12.17%). The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that first six PC axes explained 95.417% of the total variance among the Docynia delavayi populations tested, and the first three PCs explained 76.413% of the variation in multiple traits. PC1 was the most important genetic factor and the main indicator of its interpopulation variation, accounting for 51.428% of the total variation. Based on the nine phenotypic data of leaf and fruit from 17 natural populations of Docynia delavayi, the UPGMA method was used to broadly classify these populations into four main groups. This study provides a theoretical basis for further utilization and conservation of Docynia delavayi germplasm resources.