Brucellosis is an important zoonosis with global distribution which can happen in 3 stages: acute, subacute or chronic [1, 2]. The causes of brucellosis is a small, gram-negative, non-motile and facultative intracellular coccobacillus, which can infect a wide range of mammals include cow, sheep, goat, pigs, rodents, marine mammals and human. Brucellosis can affect the reproductive system and lessen the fertility or even cause spontaneous abortion or infertility, especially in cattle. [1, 3]. The humans are infected by Brucella spp. via the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, and non-intact skin. The Bacteria disseminate in the body through the blood circulation and lymphatic system . Brucellosis usually presents by fever, sweating, weakness, musculoskeletal pain, lethargy, and weight loss. Also, it can cause local infection in the liver, spleen, bones, and some other organs . This disease has been known for prolonged and long-term illnesses of thousands of faces and naturally identifies ways of transmitting disease and its control can make an important contribution to the health of the community . Six species of Brucella have been identified as disease-causing agents, which B. abortus, B. canis, B. melitensis, and B. suis. capable of causing disease in humans . The human usually infected by consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products . Brucellosis may transmit through non-intact skin, even the placenta, and also it is an airborne disease. Other raw or semi-cooked beef by-products such as liver, meat, heart, kidney, and blood, which are common foods in some countries, are considered to be infectious sources [8, 9].
Brucellosis is a zoonosis disease which can spread between animals and humans worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, Central and South America, Asia, and Africa. Although only 17 countries such as Scandinavian and northern European countries, Australia, New Zealand and Japan and couple of other countries have been declared free of brucellosis, even in these countries, some cases of the disease have been reported among travelers to endemic areas [8, 10]. The countries like Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan, and Oman have the highest incidence of human Brucellosis , and the incidence of brucellosis in the Middle East is between 1 to 78 people per 100,000 population [5, 12]. According to the Lancet journal statistical data in 2006, Iran, Turkey, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia, with an outbreak of 8 to 50 per 100,000 after the Syria (over 100 per 100,000 population), Afghanistan, Georgia, Bosnia and Albania (50 to 100 per 100,000) has the highest prevalence of human brucellosis . Otlu and colleagues in a study in Turkey showed that in some provinces of the country 34.9% of the livestock with a history of abortion had positive brucellosis history. Brucellosis is endemic in Iran, syria, and Iraq, especially in provinces neighboring turkey due to the illegal exchange of livestock between them . In a study by Forghani et al. In Yazd province – Iran, during the years 2006–2009, 63% of cases had a history of contact with the livestock. After the contact, the most common route of transmission was through the contaminated food and the highest rate was related to housewives (30.8%) . The disease is widespread in all parts of Iran, but its prevalence is not the same in different regions, so that the least incidence reported in the southern regions of Iran and the highest infection rates (98 to 130 cases per 100,000 people) exists in the provinces of Hamadan, Central, East Azarbayjan and Zanjan. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the brucella infection of milk and dairy products have been used in different areas of Hamadan, west of Iran, in local dispensary in unpasteurized form. Ultimately, the purpose of this research is to assist health planners and administrators interconnection to precise and effective control of the disease, taking into account the main routes of transmission, as well plan targeted and hands-on training for rural and also healthcare personnel of rural and countrysides.