Background： This study aimed to compare the clinical results between the Wiltse approach and traditional approach in lumbar spine fusion. Methods: In this retrospective controlled study, from May 2016 to May 2017, 70 cases with lumbar spine fusion surgery for lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spondylolisthesis within Ⅱdegree were assigned to Wiltse approach (35 cases,18 males and 17 females; mean age 52 years) and traditional approach groups (35cases, 19 males, 16 females; 51 years). There were totally 38 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 32 cases of II- degree spondylolisthesis in two groups. The operation time, the amount of blood loss and post-operation drainage, the level of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and the reduction of cross sectional area (CSA) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were recorded. Results: After the operation for the Wiltse approach group, there was less operation time, blood loss and post-operative drainage (p＜0.05) ;the peripheral blood CK levels was changed a lot in 1 day and 3 days after the operation. In the Wiltse group, the reduction of CSA was significantly lower than traditional approach group in MRI. Conclusion: For lumbar spinal fusion surgery, the Wiltse approach do have shorter operation time and smaller vertebral side muscle injury compared with the traditional approach. However, in determining the operation program, the performer should fully recognize that the Wiltse clearance may have different influence on the operation at different anatomical level.