Background: Epidemiological data is providing vital indicators for organizing the financial resources related to a particular type of trauma, estimating expenses and training of dental practioners and ambulatory medical staff for collaboration with a certain pattern of patients. Knowing the etiology and epidemiology of a certain pathology is significant for approaching its means of prevention.
Methods: A 10-year retrospective statistical analysis of 1007 patients with maxillofacial fractures treated in a University Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Romania was performed. The data were extracted from patients’ medical records. Statistical analysis was performed. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The incidence of maxillofacial fractures was high among patients in the 20-29 age group (35.9%). Male patients (90.57%, M:F=9.6:1), having a low level of education (46.60%) and living in urban areas (53.50%) were more affected. The main cause of maxillofacial fractures was interpersonal violence (59.37%), both in the mandibular and midface topographic regions (p=0.001, p=0.002). In urban areas, fractures caused by interpersonal violence and road traffic accidents were predominant, while in rural areas, most of the fractures were due to interpersonal violence, domestic accidents, work accidents and animal attacks (p=0.001).
Conclusions: Interpersonal violence is the main cause of maxillofacial fractures having epidemic proportions. Male patients aged 20-29 years with a low level of education represent the major risk category. Considering the wide area of interpersonal aggression, both the medical staff in the hospital and in the dental offices must be educated in order to collaborate with possible violent patients. Dentists must be prepared to work on a post-traumatic dento-periodontal field. Taking all measures to prevent inter-human aggression is imperative and will lead to a major decrease in maxillofacial fractures and an overall increase of oral health in a population.