Mountainous topography reflects an interplay between tectonic uplift, crustal strength, and climate-conditioned erosion cycles. During glaciations, glacial erosion increases bedrock relief, whereas during interglacials relief is lowered by rockwall erosion. In the first landscape-scale, multi-process investigation of postglacial rockwall erosion patterns, we show that paraglacial, frost cracking and permafrost processes jointly drive rockwall erosion. Field observations and modelling experiments demonstrate that all three processes are strongly conditioned by elevation. Our findings provide a multi-process explanation for the increase of rockwall erosion rates with elevation across the European Alps. As alpine basins warm during deglaciation, changing intensities and elevation-dependent interactions between periglacial and paraglacial processes result in elevational shifts in rockwall erosion patterns. Future climate warming will shift the intensity and elevation distribution of these processes, resulting in overall lower erosion rates across the Alps, but with more intensified erosion at the highest topography most sensitive to climate change.