Population dynamics of migratory species can be modeled using spatial bipartite networks in which breeding and winter regions, or nodes, are distributed longitudinally and connected by links representing migratory movements. Understanding the factors that influence the connectivity and population size of such networks is important for effective conservation. In migration ecology terminology, strong migratory connectivity is a network with low node degree and weak or diffuse connectivity is a network with high node degree. We present a model of migration networks using a Lotka-Volterra system of differential equations in which each winter-breeding link is represented as a subpopulation which competes with other subpopulations that share breeding or winter regions. We use persistence theory to determine which links coexist with one another under different parameter regimes in a 2 x 2 network where only three patterns of connectivity (weak, moderate, and strong) are possible. We find that, in the absence of dispersal among subpopulations, strong connectivity occurs when winter habitat has the same longitudinal distribution as breeding habitat, and/or costs of cross-longitudinal migration are high. Moderate connectivity arises otherwise. Total population size is maximized when each longitudinal region has the same amount of breeding habitat as winter habitat and decreases with the costs of migration. Including any degree of dispersal leads to weak connectivity and also reduces population size. Our results suggest that actions that conserve habitat so as to preserve matching habitat distributions and minimize costs of migration would be most effective.