Introduction: Russell body inflammation of the digestive tract (RBIDT) is a rare chronic inflammation of the digestive tract mucosa that commonly presents as Russell body gastritis (RBG). This disease is usually associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. However, it can also occur in individuals without HP infection and with specific immune profiles, as seen in HIV and hepatitis C infections. The aetiology and pathogenesis of this disease remain controversial. Given the rarity of the disease and the diversity of the immunophenotypes, there is a high probability of misdiagnosis.
Case Presentation: A male patient with RBG and HP infection was included in this study. The case of RBG with an unusual morphology of Mott cells that mimics stamped ring cells.Endoscopy performed during the follow-up revealed regression of the lesion 1 week after anti-HP treatment.
Conclusion: A case of RBG with a high likelihood of misdiagnosis of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) has been reported in this study along with a review of the relevant literature and an overview of RBIDT.