Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death and disability across the world. Dyslipidemia, and more specifically, elevated LDL-C has been historically attributed to be one of the key modifiable risk factors associated with atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine LDL-C and sdLDL-C, for establishment of their predictive value in the development of CVDs, in order for them to be used as clinical tools to guide the management of CVDs.
Material and Methods:
One hundred sixty-two (162) serum samples sent for the analysis of lipid profile parameters were studied, which were classified into tests and controls based on the values of calculated LDL-C obtained by Friedewald formula. These samples were then anonymized, and direct LDL-C was estimated using assay kits automatically. Then, sdLDL-C was calculated for all the samples using the arithmetic formula. After a period of six months, the samples were then deanonymized, and the various laboratory lipid profile parameters were correlated with the clinical outcomes in the form of cardiovascular events in the patients, to find out which parameter showed the best correlation.
It was observed from the present study that, neither calculated LDL-C (p=0.468) nor direct LDL-C (p=0.615) could be used singly as potential marker for the occurrence of a cardiovascular event in the immediate future. The calculated sdLDL-C also failed to demonstrate any such significance (0.642). Instead, the % sdLDL-C, both with respect to calculated and direct LDL-C, proved to be of higher predictive value.
It can be concluded that LDL-C levels alone or the levels of its individual phenotypes cannot be singly used as surrogate markers suggestive of occurrence of any CVDs in the immediate future.