This chapter contains the body of the paper that is data analysis. In this chapter the researcher discusses Shinasha word formation processes: derivation, compounding, reduplication and Shinasha word formation by changing tone patterns.
Derivation is the process of forming new words by attaching the derivational affixes to different bases or stems. In Shinasha language, different derivational affixes are attached to form new words. Derivation includes derived nouns, derived verbs, derived adjectives and derived adverbs in Shinasha.
4.1.1 DERIVED NOUNS
Nominalization is the process of forming new nominals by adding derivational affixes to a base. The base for forming Shinasha nominals can be, verbal, or adjectival. It is investigated that in this language abstract agentive, manner, gerundive and result or process nominals are formed by attaching derivational suffixes.
Derived nouns are different in type. These are abstract nominals, agentive nomonals, manner nominals, gerundive nominals and result nominals.
126.96.36.199 Abstract nominals
In Shinasha language complex abstract nouns are formed from different bases. The first abstract nominal’s are those nominals added the suffix morpheme /-ònά/ to have their abstract form. The following examples are given below.
Noun base abstract nominal
ná?á “child" → ná?ooná “child hood”
nìhά “Father” → nìhoonά “Fatherhood”
ngύ∫á “boy” → ngύ∫oonά “boyhood”
?ė∫[i] wά] “brother → [?ė∫ [i] woona “brother hood”
As it has been indicated in the above data, Shinash nouns are formed nouns by adding the suffix /-òna/and when this morpheme is added vowel changes happened that means the base vowel/a/ is deleted. And the second abstract nominals are those nominals added the suffix motpheme /-òní/. The following examples are given below.
Adjectival base abstract nominal
k'ò:tsá “fat” k'ò:tsooní /ќòts ská/ “fatness”
dò:fá “lazy” dò:fooní “laziness”
∫átská “coword” ∫átò:∫ooní “cowardice”
In the data given above, most Shinasha abstract nouns are formed by attaching the suffix morpheme /-òní/. Even though, both of them are abstract noun forming suffixes. In addition to this, when both suffixes added to the stem, the ending vowel of the stem is deleted.
188.8.131.52 Agentive Nominal
Agenitive nominals refer to the doers of the actions expressed by verbs. In Shinasha language complex nominals of this sort are formed by suffixing /íròní/ to verb roots. Let us see some examples of shinasha language.
Verb root Agentive nominal’s
wáќá “to swim” wák'ìrooní “ Swimmer”
gò:∫á “to plough” gò:∫ìrooní “ former”
finá “to work” fìnírooní “worker”
As it has been seen from the above examples agentive nominal producing /iròni/is simply attached to the base. But when the suffix /ròni/is added the stem vowel /à / is deleted.
184.108.40.206 Manner nominals
Manner nominal’s express the way of manner of doing the action of the verb from which they are derived. In Síhinasha language attaching the suffix/ò:ní/ to the verb root is an important way to form manner nominals. The following examples are presented below.
Verb root manner nominals
ímá “give” ímooní “way of giving”
ámá “go” ámooní “way of going”
∫ύná “love” ∫ύnìooní “way of loving”
As it has been indicated in the above examples most Shinasha manner nominals are formed by adding the suffix /ò:ní/and when this morpheme is added the verb stem vowel /a/ is deleted.
220.127.116.11 Gerundive nominals
In Shinasha language most Gerundive nominals are formed from verbal roots by adding the suffix /ír/to the verb roots.
Verb roots gerundive nominals
woośá "to run" woośír "runing"
čà∫á "to insult" čà∫ír "insulting"
ťòlà "to jump" ťòlír "jumping"
As it has been indicated in the above examples gerundive nominals are formed from verb roots by taking the morpheme /ir/ in different tone levels (high and law tone). When this morpheme is added the gerundive vowel /a/ is deleted.
As it has been shown in the above example, the result nominal producing /εrε/ is simply attached to the bases. But when the suffix/εrε/ is added' the ending vowel of the stem /-a/ is deleted.
4.1.2 Derived verbs
Verbalization is the process of forming verbals by attaching derivational affixes to a base. In Shinasha language the process of creating verbal elements is applied by attaching different suffixes to verbal root bases.
The passive forms in Shinasha are derived by the suffixation of –ėern /ėr/. Some examples are given below.
active verbs passive verbs
kėw "he bought" Kėw-ėerė “it was bought”
ím "he gave" i’m-ėerė “it was given”
kύt "he cut" kύt- ėerė “it was cut”
ύud "he killed" ύud- ėerė “it was killed”
18.104.22.168 Reciprocal Verbs
Reciprocal verbs are formed from verb roots by attaching the suffix morpheme / éј∫á/. The condition is illustrated by the following data given below:
verb root reciprocal verbs
gјá "to find" gјé∫á "find one another"
àtá "to ask" àtéј∫á "ask one another"
dàná "to know" dànéј∫á " know one another"
d3ò:bá "to kiss" d3ò:béј∫á "kiss one another"
As it has been indicated in the above example reciprocal verbs in Shinasha are formed by adding the suffix /éј∫á/to the root. But when the bound morpheme /éј∫á/is added then the ending vowel of the stem /a/ is deleted.
In Shinasha language verbs are formed by changing the sound morpheme /ε/ to /i/. This is illustrated by the following data:
root verb trasitivzed verb
"become black" "made black"
"become strong" "made strong"
"drinks" "invited to drink"
Imperatives are formed from verb roots by adding the suffix /morpheme/ /r/. The following examples are given below:
verb root imperative verb
mìtsu "fry" mìtsur " fry it"
dà:tsu "get" dà:tsur "get it"
u:p'áw "steal" u:p'áwr "steal it"
mí:č "laugh " mí:čr "laugh at"
4.1.3 Derived adjectives
Adjectivization is the process of deriving adjectives from any lexical category. In shinasha language adjectives are formed by attaching different affixes. Most shinasha adjectives are formed by adding the suffix /mέćra´/.
Adjectives in Shinasha are formed from verbal roots, and nominal bases. The following examples are given below. First let us see adjectives derived from concrete nominal bases.
Nominal bases derived adjective
dàwà “mountain” dάwámέčrá “mountainous”
àwntsá “gold” áwatsmέčrá “Golden”
tò:k'á “mud” tòk'ámέčrá “mudy”
As it has been indicated by the above examples most Shinasha adjectives are derived from nous by attaching the adjective producing bound morpheme/mέčrá/. When this bounding morpheme is added the ending vowel of the stem is deleted but, it does not mean that deletion is common to all stems. For example deletion of vowel is common to stems: /áw∫á/ and /fò:kí∫ύtá/and not common to /bėrέ/and /∫ėjá/.
Secondly let us see Shinasha adjectives derived from abstract nominal bases. These adjectives are derived from nominal bases by adding the suffix /έtská/.
Nominal bases derived adjectives
ángá “power àngέtská “powerful”
dànà “knowledge” dànέtská “knowledgeable”
àwsá "gold" àwsέtská "goden"
As it has been shown in the above examples the adjective producing suffix / έtská/ is simply attached to the base. But when the bound morpheme /έtská/is added, the ending vowel of the stem /á/ is deleted.
4.1.4 Derived adverbs /Adverbalization/
According to informants in Shinasha language adverbs are formed by adding the suffix /-òotse/ to nominal base.
Nominal base suffix derivedadverb
bóorsá "bag" + -òótse "from" bóorsóótse "bag from"
d3óora "chair" + -òótse "from" d3óoróótse "chair from"
bòlá "mule" + -òótse "from" bòlóótse "mule from"
As it has been indicated in the above examples that the adverb producing suffix /-òotse/is simply attached to the noun base. But when the bound morpheme /-òotse/ is added the ending vowel of the stem is deleted.
In the previous chapter, we have seen the process of word formation by means of derivation. In this section we shall see the process of word formation through compounding. Compounding is defined as a process of forming new words by combining different lexical categories (Bauer, 1983: 28).
In similar way Mathews (1991: 82) defines compounding “as a process by which a compound lexeme is derived from two or more simple lexemes”. On the other hand, Radford 1997: 499) defines "a compound word as word built up out of two (more) other words”. However it is not the case that every two words combine to form compound form. Rather every language follows certain rules by which it forms its compound (Selkirk, 1984).
Different linguists grouped compounds of a language in to different classes by using various methods of classification. For instance, as it has been cited in Bauer (1983: 202) scholars like Marchand (1969) classify compounds by the form classes of the items that make up the compound. Others like Hatcher (1960) and warren (1978) choose to us semantic classes.
Zepic (1970) sub classifies compounds on the bases of the linking element. On the other hand, Lees (1960) classifies them based on the underlying syntactic functions. Others like Adams (1973) and Jesperson (1942) use the mixture of the above methods.
The usually way of classifying compounds is by function they play in the sentence such as noun as verbs, adjectives etc Bauer (1983: 201) is among the criteria that scholars use for classifying compounds, the semantic criterion seems to be the best because all compounds refer to a single units of reference. Hence in this study the researcher follows the usual way of classifying compounds that is by function they play in the sentence as nouns, verbs adjective etc.
4.2.1 compound nouns
Compound nouns are types of compounds which include noun + noun compounds, adjective + noun compounds, and verb + noun compounds.
22.214.171.124 Noun + noun compounds
In compounding two independent nouns are combined to form a compound noun. In this kind of noun + noun compound the two members of the compound are from the same grammatical category. In such compound formation the head occupies the right hand position. The following endocentric examples are presented below.
más'/ĺ/ + dò:nzά más'/ĺ/ dò:nzά
"honey" "bee" honeybee
káfí + ku´tá káfíku´tá
"bird" "house" "nest"
?àw + s’ì:rá ?àws’ì:rá
bàkí + kutá bàkí kutá
"chiken" "house" "chicken house"
126.96.36.199.1 Endocentric compounds
An endocentric compound is a compound in which the entire compound has a function similar to one of its part. It is the part of the compound which conveys the basic meaning of the whole compound is said to be its head. The following examples are given below.
tέsk + d3ò:rά tέsk d3ò:rά
"back" "chair" "back chair”
fìnì + ∫ėŋá fìnì ∫ėŋá
" good" "work" “good work”
ngu∫ + tòhά ngu∫ tòhά
"boy" "friend" “boy friend”
188.8.131.52.2 Exocentric compounds
Exocentric compound refer to the compound refer to the compound that have a different meaning from its component parts. An exocentric compound is a compound in which the entire compound has no a function similar to one of its parts. And the part of the compound does not convey the basic meaning of the whole compound and it has not a head or there is no head in exocentric compound. The following examples are given below.
dàts + dò:nzá dàts dò:nzá
"earth" "own" "snake"
s'áts + nјá s'áts nјá
"blood" "father" "old man"
s'àlì + ànzá s'àlì ànzá"
porcupine" "intestine " "cruel"
Adjective + noun compounds
In adjective + noun compound, adjectives are the first and nominal are the second members the compound. Therefore, these nominals function as heads of the compound. Some endocentric examples are given below.
tò:h + ∫ėŋá tò:h∫ėŋá
"good" "friend" "best friend"
∫ín + gà∫à ∫íngà∫à
"front" "teeth" "fronteeth"
k'έní + kí∫á k'έnìkí∫á
"right" "hand" "right hand"
4.2.2 Compound adjectives
Compound adjectives can be formed by combining two adjectives or by combining nominal and adjectival. Some of these compounds in Shinasha are presented below.
Adjective + Adjective compounds
In Shinasha language using different types of colour terminology forms these compounds adjectival. This is shown by the examples below.
àj + ààwò:ní áj ááwò:ní
"black" "brown" "black brown"
ájdέk' + bírá ájdέk' bírá
"deep" " red" "deep red"
àjdέk' + àk'á àjdέk' àk'á
"deep" "black" "deep black"
Noun + adjective compounds
These types of compounds are formed from nouns and adjectives. In this noun adjective compound, nouns are the first and adjectives are the second. But in this adjective formation nouns are heads of the compound.
Some examples are presented below:
áw + d3έsá áwd3έsá
"eye" "deficit" "eye deficit"
à∫á + gò:ndá à∫gò:ndá
"person" "rude" "rude person"
à∫á + ∫éngà à∫ ∫éngà
"person" + "good" "good person"
As it has been indicated by examples, in Shinasha language compound adjectives are not as productive as compound nouns.
4.2.3 Compound verbs
Combining nominal’s and verbals in Shinasha can form compound verbals. This fact is illustrated by the following examples.
nònέ + tski’ nònέtski
"mouth" "Open" "talk a lot"
má:sá + dέk’à má:sádέk’à
wife” “marry” “get married
tέsk + d3ò:rá tέskd3ò:rá
"back" "chair" "seat with aback"
In the previous section, we have seen the process of word formation through derivation and compounding. In this section, reduplication in Shinasha will be presented.
Reduplication is a process whereby an affix is realized by phonological material borrowed from the base (katamba, 1993:180). This borrowing or repetition of the base can be complete or partial. In complete reduplication the entire word is copied, while in partial reduplication some part of a word is copied.
4.3.1 Partial reduplication
Partial reduplication is a type of reduplication in which some part of a base is reduplicated (Maravcsik, 1978; 304 and Matthews 1991: 134).
In Shinasha partial reduplication is occurred in plural words some examples in plural words are given below.
base word reduplicated word
kò:p'a "strong" kò:kòP'á “tortoise”
gύ:s "slaves" gύ:sgύsá “male solves”
∫írέ "scrambling" ∫í∫írέ "listen"
4.3.2 Complete Reduplication
Total reduplication is a type of reduplication in which the whole stem is reduplicated. Some Shinahsa examples are presented below.
base word reduplicated word
kúmá (idea) Kúmákúmá (circle, closed)
pìrá (grind) pìrápìrá (active)
kùtsà (caterpillar) kùtsàkùtsà (breaking ones knee)
ʃàkà (ape) ʃàkàʃàkà (trushing)
lèmà (conduct) lèmàlèmà (sweet)
4.4 WORD FORMATION BY CHANGING THE TONE PATTERN
According to Ashenafi and wdekend (1990) Shinasha has low and high tone, since it is a tone language. In this language new words are formed by changing the tone pattern. Some examples are illustrated below.
stems new words formed by changing the tone pattern
gá∫á “mould” (V) gá∫à “tooth (n)
málà “trick” (a) màlà “necklace” (n)
∫írá ‘Shelter” (n) ∫ìrà “common property (n)
As it has been shown in the above examples tone change can create new lexemes. In Shinasha language a lexeme can give at least two meanings by through tone variation in each and every syllable.