1. Axmon A, Sandberg M, Ahlström G, et al. Prescription of potentially inappropriate medications among older people with intellectual disability: A register study. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2017; 18: 1–10.
2. O’Dwyer M, Maidment ID, Bennett K, et al. Association of anticholinergic burden with adverse effects in older people with intellectual disabilities: an observational cross-sectional study. Br J Psychiatry 2016; 209: 504–510.
3. De Vreese LP, Mantesso U, De Bastiani E, et al. Anticholinergic burden in adult and elderly people with intellectual disabilities: Results from an Italian multicenter cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2018; 13: 1–16.
4. Ward LM, Stanley B, Greenlaw N, et al. Risk of anticholinergic burden in adults with intellectual disabilities: a Scottish retrospective cohort study of n = 17 220. J Intellect Disabil Res 2021; jir.12861.
5. Pieper NT, Grossi CM, Chan WY, et al. Anticholinergic drugs and incident dementia, mild cognitive impairment and cognitive decline: A meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2020; 49: 939–947.
6. Budnitz DS, Pollock DA, Weidenbach KN, et al. National Surveillance of Emergency Department Visits for Outpatient Adverse Drug Events. JAMA 2006; 296: 1858.
7. Fox C, Richardson K, Maidment ID, et al. Anticholinergic medication use and cognitive impairment in the older population: The medical research council cognitive function and ageing study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011; 59: 1477–1483.
8. Ali S, Peterson GM, Bereznicki LR, et al. Association between anticholinergic drug burden and mortality in older people: a systematic review. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020; 76: 319–335.
9. Hanlon P, Quinn TJ, Gallacher KI, et al. Assessing Risks of Polypharmacy Involving Medications With Anticholinergic Properties. Ann Fam Med 2020; 18: 148–155.
10. Cooper S-A, McLean G, Guthrie B, et al. Multiple physical and mental health comorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities: population-based cross-sectional analysis. BMC Fam Pract 2015; 16: 110–121.
11. NHS England. Stopping over medication of people with a learning disability, autism or both (STOMP), https://www.england.nhs.uk/learning-disabilities/improving-health/stomp/ (2019, accessed 31 January 2020).
12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Challenging behaviour and learning disabilities: Prevention and interventions for people with learning disabilities whose behaviour challenges. 2015.
13. Scottish Government Polypharmacy Model of Care Group T. Polypharmacy Guidance, Realistic Prescribing 3rd Edition, http://dghstatistiques.ci/assets/documents/annuaire/Annuaire-DGH-2018-v3.pdf (2018).
14. Sheehan R, Hassiotis A, Walters K, et al. Mental illness, challenging behaviour, and psychotropic drug prescribing in people with intellectual disability: UK population based cohort study. BMJ; 351. Epub ahead of print 2015. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.h4326.
15. Evans EJ, Trollor JN. Role of Psychotropic Medications in Older Adults. In: Mental Health, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and the Ageing Process. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 189–205.
16. Norton EC, Dowd BE, Maciejewski ML. Marginal Effects—Quantifying the Effect of Changes in Risk Factors in Logistic Regression Models. JAMA Guid to Stat Methods 2019; 321: 1304–1305.
17. Kinnear D, Morrison J, Allan L, et al. Prevalence of physical conditions and multimorbidity in a cohort of adults with intellectual disabilities with and without Down syndrome: cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2018; 8: e018292.
18. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Multimorbidity: clinical assessment and management (NG56), http://bjgp.org/lookup/doi/10.3399/bjgp17X690857 (September 2016).
19. Nabhanizadeh A, Oppewal A, Boot FH, et al. Effectiveness of medication reviews in identifying and reducing medication-related problems among people with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2019; 32: 750–761.
20. Bowring DL, Totsika V, Hastings RP, et al. Prevalence of psychotropic medication use and association with challenging behaviour in adults with an intellectual disability. A total population study. J Intellect Disabil Res 2017; 61: 604–617.
21. McMahon M, Hatton C, Bowring DL, et al. The prevalence of potential drug–drug interactions in adults with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res 2021; 1–11.
22. Haider SI, Ansari Z, Vaughan L, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with polypharmacy in Victorian adults with intellectual disability. Res Dev Disabil 2014; 35: 3071–3080.
23. O’Dwyer M, Peklar J, Mulryan N, et al. Prevalence, patterns and factors associated with psychotropic use in older adults with intellectual disabilities in Ireland. J Intellect Disabil Res 2017; 61: 969–983.
24. Lu W-H, Wen Y-W, Chen L-K, et al. Effect of polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medications and anticholinergic burden on clinical outcomes: a retrospective cohort study. Can Med Assoc J 2015; 187: E130–E137.
25. Herrero-Zazo M, Berry R, Bines E, et al. Anticholinergic burden in older adult inpatients: patterns from admission to discharge and associations with hospital outcomes. Ther Adv Drug Saf 2021; 12: 204209862110125.
26. Mur J, Cox SR, Marioni RE, et al. Increase in anticholinergic burden from 1990 to 2015: Age‐period‐cohort analysis in UK biobank. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021; 1–11.
27. Schoufour JD, Oppewal A, Van Der Maarl HJK, et al. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are independently associated with mortality in older people with intellectual disabilities: A 5-year follow-up from the HA-ID study. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 2018; 123: 72–82.
28. Reinold J, Braitmaier M, Riedel O, et al. Anticholinergic burden: First comprehensive analysis using claims data shows large variation by age and sex. PLoS One 2021; 16: e0253336.
29. Henderson A, McSkimming P, Kinnear D, et al. Changes over a decade in psychotropic prescribing for people with intellectual disabilities: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open. Epub ahead of print 2020. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036862.
30. Shankar R, Wilcock M, Deb S, et al. A structured programme to withdraw antipsychotics among adults with intellectual disabilities: The Cornwall experience. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2019; 32: 1389–1400.
31. Deb S, Nancarrow T, Limbu B, et al. UK psychiatrists’ experience of withdrawal of antipsychotics prescribed for challenging behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities and/or autism. BJPsych Open 2020; 6: 1–7.