In 2019 and 2020, symptoms of dwarfing, yellowing, and reddening were observed in garlic in the open fields of Shandong Province, China. Milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) was detected from aphids and symptomatic garlic plants using polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that garlic is the natural host of MDV using the aphid transmission test. Rolling circle amplification was combined with specific primers to amplify the complete genomes of MDV and its related alphasatellites. In this study, the complete genome sequences of MDV and related alphasatellites were amplified from the garlic and aphid samples for the first time.