To solve the problem of processing quality degradation due to vibration in the robot bonnet polishing system (RBPS), the vibration generation mechanism of the polishing system is revealed based on the modal analysis and dynamic modeling of the RBPS. The modal analysis results showed that the operating frequency of the system is near the natural frequency, which makes the system susceptible to resonance. On the other hand, the forced vibration caused by the polishing force leads to high vibration at the end of the robot during the polishing process. In order to suppress the vibration generated by the polishing system and optimize the dynamic characteristics of the polishing system, a vibration suppression method to increase the damping ratio of the system was proposed. The experiments of SiC fixed point polishing were performed using both vibration suppression bonnet and original bonnet. The surfaces RMS and PV of the parts polished by the vibration suppression bonnet were generally better than those of the original bonnet. The vibration suppression bonnet has improved the convergence ratio of RMS and PV by 42.59% and 19.56% respectively over the original bonnet in the whole surface polishing experiments. The PSD analysis illustrated that the vibration suppression bonnet can better suppress the intermediate frequency errors. The effectiveness of the method in suppressing vibration and improving machining quality is demonstrated.