Basalt fiber polymer concrete (BFPC) machine tool has the properties of lightweight and high damping, and the BFPC machine tool has excellent vibration damping and anti-vibration performance, which can improve the processing performance of the machine tool. There are many steel-BFPC jointsurfaces in the machine tool, and thesejoint surfaceshavea key influence on the dynamic performance such as the modal performance of the machine tool. In order to establish a virtual material simulation analysis method for modal characteristics of steel-BFPC joint surface, the detection principle of contact parameters of steel-BFPC joint surface was studied by using forced vibration theory, and the contact parameter detection experiment of steel-BFPC joint surface was designed. The virtual material model of BFPC joint surface was established, and the theoretical formulas of equivalent elastic modulus and equivalent shear modulus were derived based on the identified parameters of the BFPC joint surface. For the correctness of the analysis theory, a BFPC bed was taken as an example to study the modal performance of the BFPC bed by means of experiment and virtual material simulation analysis, respectively. The results of simulation analysis were compared with the experimental results. The results show that the maximum error of thenatural frequency is only 6.23%, and the modes of each order are consistent, which prove the effectiveness and accuracy of the virtual material simulation analysis method.