Objectives: This study used a case control Study to compare whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or central sleep apnea (CSA) are related with an increased risk of obesity.
Materials and Methods: We used 2005 Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID2005), which is part of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to identified 24 363 obese patients; 97 452 patients without obesity were identified also, from the same database from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2015. Age, sex, and index date were matched. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the previous exposure risk of OSA or CSA with obesity and. A p value of <.05 was considered significant.
Results: Obesity patients have higher risk to be exposed to OSA than did those with CSA (OSA adjusted OR [AOR] = 2.927, 95% CI = 1.878-4.194, p < .001; CSA adjusted OR [AOR] = 2.234, 95% CI = 1.483-4.380, p < .001). Furthermore, the closeness of the exposure period to the index time was positively associated with the severity of obesity, with a dose–response effect (OSA exposure <1 year, AOR = 3.895; OSA exposure ≥1 year and <5 years, AOR = 2.933; OSA exposure ≥5 years, AOR = 2.486 ; CSA exposure <1 year, AOR = 2.484; CSA exposure ≥1 year and <5 years, AOR = 2.105; CSA exposure ≥5 years, AOR = 1.862). The exposure duration of OSA in patients with obesity was 2.927 times than that of CSA was 2.234 times. Longer exposure durations were associated with more severe obesity with a dose–response effect (OSA exposure <1 year, AOR = 2.251; OSA exposure ≥1 year and <5 years, AOR = 2.986; OSA exposure ≥5 years, AOR = 3.452; CSA exposure <1 year, AOR = 2.101; CSA exposure ≥1 year and <5 years, AOR = 2.207; CSA exposure ≥5 years, AOR = 2.976).
Conclusions: OSA patients have significantly higher risk of Obesity than that of CSA in this study. Longer exposure to OSA or CSA was related with a higher likelihood of obesity, with a dose-response effect.