The European Union (EU) has become the group of countries most interested in the fight against climate change and is therefore committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This research analyses the Natural and Managerial efficiency of the EU-28 countries for the period 2008–2017. The Data Envelopment Analysis methodology is used and Natural and Managerial Malmquist indices are obtained by assuming that a shift in the efficiency frontier exists and by considering that frontier crossings are possible across the different periods considered. The input variables used are those of Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF), non-emitting energy consumption, and employment. Gross domestic product (GDP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are taken as the desirable and undesirable output variables, respectively.
The results of the analysis indicate that both Natural and Managerial efficiency have worsened in Spain during the period considered, whereby Spain has dropped in the relevant ranking. With regard to the Malmquist Index (MI), during this entire period, the position of the evolution of Spain in relation to all EU countries was better within the sphere of Managerial efficiency, than in that of Natural efficiency.