Investigation place and targets
This study assessed the Huamu community in Pudong New District of Shanghai. This community has a history of more than 30 years and is home to a stable population. The social and economic levels in the Huamu community are at the average level of Shanghai.
This study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai General Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University (registration number: 2010 K059). All subjects signed informed consents before being examined.
The detailed study protocol has been described elsewhere. According to the preceding criteria, a total of 3146 people aged 50 and older were enrolled from a population-based study using cluster random sampling in Pudong New District, Shanghai. In the current study, only data from right eyes were analyzed and exclusion criteria include previous cataract surgery and other intraocular operations, ocular trauma, intraocular inflammation, iris dysplasia, atrophic eyeball, and incomplete data.
This research adopted remote screening in the community in combination with subsequent clinical evaluation and diagnosis at a tertiary eye hospital. Subject identities (IDs) were verified and personal information was collected. Remote screening was then performed, including visual acuity, refraction, IOP measurement, slit lamp digital anterior eye structure photography, and digital fundus photography. The collected information was then transmitted to the Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center through a dedicated network. The ophthalmologists clinically experienced in glaucoma diagnosis reviewed the photographs and gathered data. The investigation team then made an appointment for examination at the Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center for glaucoma suspects after the preliminary check. Re-examinations included IOP measurement, gonioscopy, perimetry testing by Humphrey automated perimetry, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement by optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Visual acuity was measured using a standard illuminated LogMAR (minimum angle of resolution) E chart (Precision Vision, IL, USA), and the presenting visual acuity and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was recorded. The autorefraction data were converted to the spherical equivalent (SE: sphere +1/2 cylinder).
Digital anterior segment slit lamp photographs were taken in a dark room. Abnormalities of the anterior segment, such as corneal opacity, iris atrophy, pupil size, lens status, presence of glaucomflecken and turbidity of the crystalline lens were recorded. The peripheral ACD around the limbus on the temporal side using an illuminated slit lamp, which casts a clear line on the iris. As described in our previous study,  peripheral ACD was described as a percentage of corneal thickness at the temporal limbus with the slit beam directed perpendicular to the ocular surface(The brightest, narrowest illumination beam was used. The illumination column was offset from the microscope axis by 40 。)
Centered by the optic disc and macula, two digital fundus photographs were taken using a digital nonmydriatic fundus camera (CanonCR-DGi, Japan).
All the data collected remotely were transmitted to the Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, and the film reading doctors used the Van Herrick method to evaluate the peripheral ACD. Microsoft Paint was used to measure the depth of the peripheral anterior chamber and the corresponding corneal thickness (CT) in the anterior segment photograph, and the ACD to the CT ratio was calculated. Three measurements were carried out and recorded, and the median of 3 readings was used to analyze. A modified Van Herrick grading scheme was used in this study with eight categories (0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, 0.45, 0.75, and ≥1.0 CT) instead of the usual five categories (0, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, 1 CT). These values were chosen to give class limits of 0, <0.1, <0.2, <0.3, <0.4, <0.5, <1.0, and ≥1.0 CT. All subjects with peripheral ACD less than 0.5 CT were made an appointment for gonioscopy in the tertiary care eye hospital. Microsoft Paint was also used to measure the vertical diameters of the optic cup and optic disk, and vertical cup to disk ratio (VCDR) was calculated. Disk hemorrhage, optic nerve head notching, and other abnormal characteristics in the fundus photograph were recorded.
Gonioscopy was performed with a Goldman one-mirror lens (HaggStreit, Bern, Switzerland) at 16× magnification using a 1-mm-long slit with low ambient illumination to prevent light from irradiating the pupil area. A vertically oriented light beam was used for observing both the superior and the inferior anterior chamber angles and horizontally for the nasal and temporal quadrants. The anterior chamber angle was first evaluated statically, and then dynamically with the lens was performed. The anterior chamber angles were characterized with the Spaeth grading system. One senior doctor did gonioscopy for all participants in the hospital.
SITA-FAST 30–2 mode white-on-white automated perimetry (Humphrey 720, Carl Zeiss Meditec, CA, USA) was performed with refractive correction. RNFL thickness was measured using Cirrus spectral domain HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, CA, USA).
Glaucoma suspects were identified according to presence of any of the following signs: VCDR >0.5 in either eye, VCDR asymmetry ≥0.2, or a neuroretinal rim width reduced to <0.1 CDR (between 11 and 1 o’clock or 5 and 7 o’clock), optic disk hemorrhage, notching in the optic disc rim or RNFL defects on the superior or inferior temporal near the disc in the fundus photograph, or IOP ≥21 mmHg.
Glaucoma cases were diagnosed using ISGEO criteria. Glaucoma was identified in accordance with three levels of evidence. The division of glaucoma into PACG versus primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) was based on gonioscopic finding of a narrow angle. PACS was defined as an eye with appositional contact between the peripheral iris and posterior trabecular meshwork. In epidemiological research, a narrow angle has most often been defined as an angle in which >270° of the posterior trabecular meshwork (the part which is often pigmented) cannot be seen during a static examination. PAC was regarded as an eye with an occludable drainage angle and features indicating that trabecular obstruction by the peripheral iris have occurred, such as peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), elevated IOP, iris whorling (distortion of the radially orientated iris fibers), “glaucomfleken” lens opacities, or excessive pigment deposition on the trabecular surface and and the optic disc does not have glaucomatous damage.
A database was established with EpiData 3.0 (EpiData Association, Odense, Denmark). Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.1.3 (SAS Inc., NC, USA). The 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated assuming a normal distribution. This study first performed univariate logistic regression analysis on the factors influencing peripheral ACD, and then performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the association of age, gender, IOP, and refraction with peripheral ACD. A value of P <0.05 was defined as statistically significant.