Under global warming, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events are likely to increase dramatically, which will have a more serious impact on ecosystems and human society and require more timely and effective responses (IPCC, 2014). The typical continental monsoon climate in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River can cause the instability and variability of the climate due to the changes of monsoon strength and the early and late of monsoon rains. These changes may be result in frequent flood and drought in the region and directly related to the harvest of agricultural years. Hence the climate changes in the future may not only affect living environment and ecological security, also put forward severe challenges to the high quality and sustainable development of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River region.
There is a long history and abundant climatic records in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, and also has some reconstructed drought-flood information based on historical documents but often non-quantitative and discontinuous. Dendroclimatology is a science that reconstructs past climate changes based on tree physiology and tree radial growth characteristics (Fritts,1976;Wu, 1990). Tree-ring data have the advantages of high resolution (annual or seasonal) and precise-continuous series for dating, and it has been successfully used to quantitatively characterize the climate change series and regarded as one of the most important proxy indicators in the past climate change research (Fritts,1976; Cook et al, 2010).
In recent years, dendrochronological studies in eastern China had been developing rapidly (Cai et al, 2013, 2018;Cheng et al, 2012, 2015, 2021; Duan et al, 2012༛Fang et al, 2017༛Peng et al, 2014, 2018, 2019, 2020; Shi et al, 2013, 2017; Zhang et al, 2017; Zhao et al, 2019༛Zheng et al, 2012, 2016). However, dendrochronological study is still limited in Mt. Funiu of western Henan Province as a climatic transition zone (Tian et al, 2009༛Shi et al, 2012༛Liu et al, 2015, 2017༛Zhao et al, 2019༛Peng et al, 2020; Yang et al, 2021). There are some hydroclimate reconstructions in Mt. Funiu, e.g., temperature (Shi et al, 2009༛Tian et al, 2009༛Liu et al, 2014, 2015༛Yang et al, 2021), relative humidity (Liu et al, 2017༛Peng et al, 2020), scPDSI (Zhao et al, 2019). To some extent, the above studies are helpful to understand climate change in Mt. Funiu and its surrounding areas. To better reveal the impact and formation mechanism on climate change and more understood climate change affecting ecological security and high-quality development in central Plains, further study of tree rings in Mt. Funiu is necessary.
This study was mainly used to compare correlation between tree-ring data and north-south climatic factors (including scPDSI grid data) in Mt. Funiu and the transitional characteristics of performance; Secondly the most significant climate limiting factors were selected to carry out climate reconstruction and analysis it’s spatial representations, and finally further to explore the possibility and potential impact of future climate change in this region.