Garlic (Allium sativum) is an herb used widely as a flavoring in cooking has also been used as a medicine throughout ancient and modern history to prevent and treat wide range of conditions and diseases. Note that Garlic is one of the most known traditional herbal remedy for a wide range of ailments. It’s used to improve blood circulation to reduce the risk of heart disease. Garlic also thought to help reduce high cholesterol and elevated blood pressure. Note that garlic also contains anti oxidants that help to remove environmental toxins land west product of normal body pressure in the blood. Antioxidants help to contains and remove those harm full substances before they can accumulate and damage the body. The oils that extracted from the species and herbs are found to be effective in killing bacteria, viruses and others. Garlic is used for many conditions related to heart and blood system these conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol coronary heart disease and hardening of arteries.
Infectious rate by microorganism in developing countries is remaining high. Diseases continue to be a problem where nutrition, sanitary conditions are pure and emerging disease is more dangerous for such population. In Ethiopia studies indicate that common bacterial infection is Salmonella, E. coli and Shigella. The mode of transmit ion is through water and food contamination. In urban and ruler area of Ethiopia these sanitary condition are poor. This condition exposed the population by those strain of bacteria. Disease due to food borne pathogens also remains a problem largely by consumption of improperly processed and stored food. Understanding the source of contamination and developing ways of limits the growth of pathogen is the role of education (WHO, 2005).
Salmonella, Shigella and E. coli bacteria are the most problems causing food poising and disease. This study was aimed on antibacterial activity of garlic (Allium sativum) on bacterial growth. Ethiopia has various topographic land forms and biodiversity of plant species which are applicable for traditional medicine among these traditional plants the one widely used is garlic. But the effectiveness of the garlic has not been scientifically evaluated. This kind of research contributes to scientifically evaluate and increase the use of garlic to reduce infection (Jonkers et al., 1999).
Many studies have been conducted on different plant species of traditional medicine and in Ethiopia garlic has been considered to be wonder drug for treatment and prevention of variety of disease but for generation people have information of its medicinal value through garlic has been widely used as antibiotic and treatment of cardiovascular disease, bites, tumors, ulcer, wounds, cancers, measles and many mores (Jonkers et al., 1999). Vaccines and antibiotics have lessened the impact of pathogens in the developed world. But microbial infection in developing countries is high and new illness caused by microorganisms continue to emerge and known pathogens becoming resistant.
Salmonella infection is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Typically it lives in animal and human intestinal and is shed through feces. Humans infected most frequently through contaminated water and food. Salmonella is the second most frequent bacterial infectious disease in the world. Infection with salmonella includes fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea.
E. coli bacteria normally live in the intestine of animals. Most of E. coli is harmless and actually important part of healthy human intestinal tract. However, some E. coli are pathogenic meaning they can cause illness either diarrhea or illness outside of intestinal tract. Shigella also causes intestinal disease of shigellosis. The main sign is diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and malaise, but it is easily treated bacterial infection.
The purpose this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract against Shigella, Salmonella and E. coli.
The concept of traditional medicine
Traditional medicine is remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary health care system of resource poor communities and the local therapy is only means of medical treatment for such communities. Traditional medicine defined as a health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies manual techniques and exercise, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illness and maintain well-being. It is known that many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America use traditional medicine to meet some their primary health care needs. In Africa, up to 80% of the population uses traditional medicine for primary health care (WHO, 2003).
Traditional medicine has maintained its popularity in all region of developing world and its use is rapidly spreading in the industrialized countries. For example in china it accounts for 30%-50% of total medicinal consumption. In most African countries about 70% with high fever resulting from malaria uses herbal medicine at home (WHO, 2003)
Characteristics of traditional medicine in Ethiopia
Ethiopia has long history of traditional medicine and has developed ways to combat disease through it and the ways are also as diverse as different cultures. The majority of the population (90%) that lives in Ethiopia depend mainly on traditional medicines to meet their healthcare needs (WHO, 2002). In the country healing the protection of and promotion of human physical, spiritual, social, mental and material well-being are based on traditional medicine. It widely believed in Ethiopia that the skill of traditional health practitioners is given by God and knowledge on traditional medicine is passed orally from parent to favorite child, usually a son or is acquired by some spiritual procedure. Traditional healing knowledge is guarded by certain families or social groups (Lambert, 2001).
Healers obtain their drugs mainly from natural substances. Drugs prepared in various dosage forms including liquids, ointments, powders and pills. Drugs were administrated using different routes; the main one is being topical, oral and respiratory. When side effects became severe, antioxidants were claimed to be used. In this content, garlic has been used its medical properties for thousands of years, however, investigations in to mode of its action are relatively recent. Medicinal plants like thyme, lemon, ginger, lavender, and onions are used extensively today. Among these plants the most intensively and wide spread used is garlic (Allium sativum) (Ellmorre et al., 1994).
History of garlic
Native to central Asia, garlic is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world and has been grown for over 500 years. Ancient Egyptian seems to have been the first to cultivate this plant that played an important role in their culture. Garlic began to find its way into other cultures and every life of ancient civilization such as Greece, Rome, Northern Europe and China. The medicinal purposes and properties of garlic eventually became known throughout the known world and celebrated in pre-and recorded history. In folklores, garlic was attributed with the ability to bring good luck, protect against evil forces, serve as aphrodisiac, repel scorpions and sorcerers, were wolves war locks and vampires (mostly because of it odorous quality) among other things. It was also used to increase strength and life – energy, improve blood circulation, respiratory disorders, intestinal disorders, and conditions such as diarrhea, dysentery and flatulence, worms, skin disease and other ailments (Pizzorno and Murray,1996).
Garlic was not only bestowed with sacred qualities and placed in the tomb of pharaohs, but it was given to the slaves that built the pyramids to enhance their endurance and strength. This strength enhancing quality was also horned by ancient Greeks and Romans civilization whose athletes ate garlic before they sporting events and whose soldier consumed it before going off war. Garlic was introduced into various regions throughout the globe by migrating cultural tribes and explorers. Garlic is one of the powerful medicinal foods which exemplify the Hippocratic expression ‘Use your food as your medicine’ (Dylan, 2009).
Throughout the millennia, garlic has been a beloved plant in many cultures for its catenaries and medicinal properties. Over the last few years it gained unprecedented popularity since researchers has been scientifically validating its numerous health benefits currently. China, South Korea, India, Spain, United states are among the top commercial producer of garlic (Pizzorno and Murray, 1996).
The major flavour component of garlic (Allium sativum; Liliaceae/Alliaceae) is a thiosulphinate called allicin. This compound is formed when garlic tissue is damaged as a hydrolysis product of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (alliin) brought about by the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme alliinase. Under these conditions, alliin is cleaved by an elimination reaction, and two molecules of the sulphenic acid then form allicin (McElnay and LiWan, 1991).
Medicinal properties of garlic
Garlic is a plant, which kills bacteria fungus, parasites and glycaemia and cholesterol and liver protector property and includes anti-tumor agents. Garlic with >200 chemical substances in the body, has capacity to protect against many illness. Although, it is said that garlic should be consumed as fresh for it can be effective, garlic cloves include mixture of mono and polysulphides smelling very heavy. Some researchers argue that in some situation it should be cooked and waited extracts and oils can provide better protection against free radical and infection than fresh garlic (Concagul and Ayaz, 2010).
Garlic is used both medicinally for a range of skin and stomach problems and also in preparing food, particularly some kinds of stew and in making dried food for storage (Gebre Egziabher and Edwards, 1997). Garlic is used for a variety of reasons, and some of the attributes associated with it, e.g. for cancer prevention, or to reduce heart attacks, may not be substantiated. Other properties such as antimicrobial activity, effects on lipid metabolism, and platelet aggregation inhibitory action have been demonstrated. Ajoene has been shown to be a potent antithrombotic agent through inhibition of platelet aggregation.
How to use garlic as medicinal remedy
Garlic preparations used medicinally include steam-distilled oils, garlic macerated in vegetable oils (e.g. soybean oil), dried garlic powder, and gel-suspensions of garlic powder. Analyses indicate wide variations in the nature and amounts of constituents in the various preparations. Thus, freshly crushed garlic cloves typically contain allicin (about 0.4%) and other thiosulphinates (about 0.1%, chiefly allyl methyl thiosulphinate) (Lawson et al., 1991). Bad breath and perspiration odours which often follow the ingestion of garlic, either medicinally or culinary, are due to allyl methyl sulphide and disulphide, diallyl sulphide and disulphide, and 2-propenethiol. Plant-eating insects are best controlled by pesticides made from strong-smelling plants such as garlic (Conant and Fadem, 2012). Sitting or standing a lot can make hemorrhoids worse. But sitting in a cool bath or lying down can help. Some women say it helps to soak a clove of garlic in vegetable oil and then insert it into the anus (Klein et al., 2013).
According to Werner et al. (2015) report a drink made from garlic may help get rid of pinworms. Chop finely, or crush, 4 cloves of garlic and mix with 1 glass of liquid (water, juice, or milk). Dosage: Drink 1 glass daily for 3 weeks. These authors also reported that to treat vaginal infections with garlic: you can also use a clove of garlic as a vaginal insert. (Peel the garlic, taking care not to puncture it. Wrap it in a piece of clean cloth or gauze, and put it into the vagina). Use the douche 2 times during the day, and each night insert a new clove of garlic for 10 to 14 days.
The best remedy uses fresh, uncooked, crushed organic cloves – used in warm tea or mixed with raw, unprocessed honey, fresh garlic juice may also utilized. Garlic also is found as powder and pearl or capsule of oil. For use garlic in small children, its best to simply rub raw crushed garlic on the bottom of their feet and apply socks. To combat high level of cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood sugar, maintains as regular daily of intake of one to three fresh cloves of garlic. For internal bacterial, fungal, viral, parasites infection, for respiratory, congestion, consider fresh garlic tea or syrup with honey. However, fresh garlic always the best choice. For prevention of wounds or treatment of wounds, you can use cool compresses of garlic tea, honey garlic syrup, fresh minced garlic syrup.
Raw garlic also uses as antibacterial, viral and anti-fungal properties that help to boost the immune system and help to fight infection. Even though garlic is a potent herbal medicine that can adversely interacts with other herbal drugs. The primary infection fighting compound in garlic is called allicin. These antibacterial and anti-viral substances found in raw garlic and in small amount and in other vegetables. Many of uses come from the anti-biotic and immune stimulating effects of garlic constituents. Therefore, garlic can treat many disease caused by infection bacteria, virus, molds parasites.
Microbial infection in developing countries is high caused by microorganism and causing disease and known pathogen becoming resistant. Different strains of bacteria are associated with many illness and condition in different part of organism. Infection of diarrhea is leading to the morbidity and death in world wide. Most bacterial pathogens that causes diarrhea include Salmonella, Shigella, and E. coli.
Salmonelosis: - is the second most frequent bacterial infectious disease in the world and infection with Salmonella includes diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Small children will be in or near the hut in close contact with soil contaminated with faeces where S. typhi may abound. Infection of man by Salmonella parasite is closely associated with the sanitary habits of people in handling food and drinks. Transmission is through exposure to contaminated food and water. Environmental sanitation is a very important factor in such transmission.
Shegellosis:- Shigella infection cause abdominal pain, fever and malaise and also E. coli associated with severe diarrhea disease commonly known as hemolytic uremic syndrome.
In Ethiopia studies indicate that common bacterial infections are Salmonella, Shigella and E. coli. The mode of transmission is through contamination of water and food. Diseases due to food borne pathogens also remain a problem largely by consumption of improperly processed and stored food.
Despite the riches of Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants the scientific studies for the use of traditional medicinal plants as a source of modern medicine is not well developed when compared to the industrialized nation. There are a number of plants that medicinal property not properly known and it needs a lot of investigations to be functional from the wealth of traditional medicinal plants. Bacterial strains selected for this study (Salmonella, Shigella, and E. coli) are the most common bacterial infection in the rural and urban areas of Ethiopia. Their mode of transmission is associated with poor sanitary condition of food and water. Several studies have proposed that natural compounds in plants could offer a new strategy for developing therapies against bacterial infection. The local people are highly dependent on the traditional plants and many indigenous plants have the efficiency to cure more than one disease and according to the study garlic (Allium sativum) considered as high fidelity level by treating more than one disease. Therefore increasing scientific studies in this plant species increases the chance of success for developing an alternative drug (Jonkers, et al., 1999).