Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) causes serious damage to human health. In this study, food waste (FW) was used as raw material to prepare the food waste-derived biochar (FWB), which was further modified using Ce and Fe2+/Fe3+ co-precipitation to obtain Ce dopped magnetic waste-derived biochar (Ce/Fe3O4/FWB ) material for the efficient Cr(VI) adsorption. The morphology, structure, and characteristics of Ce/Fe3O4/FWB composite were thoroughly investigated, and its Cr(VI) uptake behavior was explored. Ce/Fe3O4/FWB showed the best Cr(VI) adsorption of 20.4 mg/g at pH 2.Additionally, the adsorption suited the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and the Langmuir equation, and the intra-particle diffusion the main step limited the Cr(VI) adsorption by Ce/Fe3O4/FWB. The thermodynamic investigation discovered that the adsorption owned a spontaneous and endothermic nature. With increasing concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and PO43-, the Cr(VI) uptake was weakened in the sequence of Cl- ＜SO42- ＜PO43-. Adsorbent preparation for Cr(VI) removal utilizing FW as a raw material is a sustainable and environmentally beneficial technology for FW reclamation and Cr(VI)-bearing wastewater treatment.