Background: Monitoring human immunodeficiency virus plasma viral load over time is critical to identify virologic treatment failure in patients taking antiretroviral therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether the overtime viral load changes depends on patient characteristic measured at baseline of human immunodeficiency virus patients at Arba Minch General Hospital.
Methods: This prospective follow up study was conducted using data obtained from medical records, patient interviews, and laboratory workup for six months. The study was employed among 152 adult patients that were selected by systematic random sampling. Longitudinal data analysis that accounts for the correlated nature of the data handled through linear mixed effect models were used to fit the data set in this study.
Result: The mean viral load declines over time for each of the adherence level groups. The estimates of linear (p = 0.0006) and quadratic visit time (p=0.0256) effects and the baseline characteristics sex, age, adherence level, and Isoniazid preventive therapy had significant effects on change of viral load of patients over time.
Conclusion: In order to improve the status of the patient’s viral load over time, considering the patients’ differences in adherence to antiretroviral therapy, sex, age, and Isoniazid preventive therapy are important.