Mining constitutes an integral part Mongolia’s national economy and dominates the country’s export revenue. At the same time, a wide range of mining on soil, water resources and the biosphere have been documented in Mongolia. This case study addresses the long-term impacts of mining on soil degradation at two mining sites located in the semiarid steppe zone of Mongolia: the open-lignite mine of Baganuur about 140 km east of Ulaanbaatar, and the open-pit copper-molybdenum mine of Erdenet about 240 km northwest of Ulaanbaatar, both of which started commercial extraction in the late 1970s. For the assessment of soil erosion, the RUSLE model was applied in different seasons for the period from 1986 to 2018 at 3-year intervals, considering both climatic variation and the expansion of the mines based on maps and satellite imagery. Severely eroded areas were identified in the vicinity of the mining sites. Results show that the soil erosion rates were predominantly between 15-30 t ha –1 yr –1 with severely affected sites accounting for 40 to 41% of the total soil erosion in the two mining areas. In total, severely eroded areas experienced soil losses of approximately were found as 3400 ha yr –1 in Erdenet and more than 1200 ha yr –1 in Baganuur. Particularly severe soil losses were identified for the year 2013 and July 2016 around the Erdenet mining area, and the years 1986, 1998 and October 2018 around the Baganuur mining area. The RUSLE- and GIS techniques are time-saving and costeffective technique for continuous monitoring of soil erosion and planning of preventing measures around mine areas.