Adult-onset hearing loss (AHL)—including presbycusis—caused by outer hair cell (OHC) degeneration is the most common sensorial disorder. Despite the high prevalence of AHL and wide therapeutic window, no targeted therapy is currently available. Here, we generated a mouse model harboring Kcnq4W276S/+ to recapitulate DFNA2, a common genetic form of progressive hearing loss caused by degenerating OHCs. By comprehensively optimizing guide RNAs, Cas9s, vehicles, and delivery routes, we found that in vivo gene editing using dual adeno-associated virus packaging in OHCs via the round window membrane significantly improved auditory function. We developed a new technique using live-cell imaging to measure the membrane potential of the OHCs and demonstrated that our approach resulted in more hyperpolarized, steady-state OHCs, indicative of elevated KCNQ4 channel activity. These findings can help develop targeted therapy for AHL and support the use of CRISPR-based gene therapy to rectify defects in OHCs.